Perfect example of a flaw in our system hiring a lifeguard increases your chance of a lawsuit in Florida; No lifeguard no liability.

Don’t take this as a condemnation of the entire system unless you understand it

This article looks at a major hole created by lawsuits in our system. Once a city in Florida hires a lifeguard it accepts responsibility for the people swimming in the waters around the guard. If the guard does not act responsible, i.e. someone drowns, then the city can be sued.

However if no guard is there then there is no liability for the city.

Because it is impossible to prove that a lifeguard did their job right when a jury is looking at the loss of a loved one, hiring a lifeguard brings on lawsuits.

The solution is simple. It requires an acceptance of reality. People are going to drown no matter how many lifeguards maybe on the beach. Pass a law saying that cities are not liable unless the actions of the lifeguards are gross or wilful and wanton. Immunity for the city will put lifeguards on the beaches.

See Are lifeguards a liability? However be cognizant that some of the legal opinions are not from attorneys. The legal basis for those statements is suspect.

What do you think? Leave a comment.

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Copyright 2014 Recreation Law (720) 334-8529

 

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About these ads

Dolores River Boating Advocates needs some volunteers next week

Good fences make good neighbors

View this email in your browser
950a5e13-391c-4a6b-b11b-9358c3d8bf43.jpg

Seeking volunteers for river fence building

Join us NEXT FRIDAY AND SATURDAY, July 25th and 26th, to build a boater-friendly river fence that will keep cows within their boundaries on both sides of the Dolores River while still allowing safe passage for boating. The project will take place at the Lightenberger Ranch, North of the town of Dolores. Two fences will be constructed across the river at each end of the property. We need several volunteers each day to achieve this important mission. If all goes well on Friday, Saturday may be a short day. Volunteers will be appreciated with pizza and beverages at the Dolores Brew Pub Friday evening! For more details and to sign up, please contact Lee-Ann at 970-560-5486 or email info.

THANK YOU!!!

Our mailing address is:Dolores River Boating Advocates

PO Box 1173

Dolores, CO 81323

Add us to your address book

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Point 65 Sweden acquires Boblbee: A line of backpacks developed to protect your gear

cape_Headenglish1.jpg

________________________________________
Point 65 Sweden
acquires Boblbee.

Point 65 Sweden has acquired iconic, Swedish, backpack and bag producer, Boblbee and is re-launching the awesome product line under the Point 65 Sweden brand.

Richard Ohman, Founder of Point 65 Sweden:
“We are following our original strategy, to branch out beyond paddle sports and enter the general Outdoor world. Boblbee is the perfect vehicle to take the first step in realizing our vision. These are truly unique products with super cool design, outstanding quality, engineering, and attention to detail. There is nothing else like these packs out there”.

Management has been merged and manufacturing consolidated with Point 65′s. Boblbee’s current distribution network will be integrated with Point 65’s, making the products globally available.

Point 65 Packs boast the best back protection in the world. Germany´s technical inspection association, TÜV, rates these packs higher than any purpose-made back protection.

Also the best gear protection. The Point 65 packs not only protect your back —your gear and electronics are also safe.
Laptops, tablets, cameras, and other valuables are secure in your Point 65 packs. The packs can survive your worst wipe out, cycle crash and withstand being driven over by a car, leaving your laptop intact.

The packs are ergonomically sound. The comfortable back piece continues all the way to the end of the lower back while the center of gravity is kept high. This makes for a pack that is exceptionally easy to carry even with a heavy load.

The products are mainly targeted for everyday use like going to work or school, shopping, travelling etc. They are super cool, extremely comfortable and you never have to worry about your electronics getting banged around while moving through airports, subways, and crowds.
The lightweight packs are great when exploring the outdoors and down right genius for action sports or cycling.

The Point 65 website http://www.point65.com will launch a pack & bag section spring 2015. Until then please refer to http://www.boblbee.com.

About Point 65 Sweden
Point 65 Sweden, an innovative outdoor company with unique products within paddle sports and packs.
Point 65 Kayaks Sweden is the leading paddle sports brand in Northern Europe and one of the fastest growing kayak companies in the world. Point 65 Kayaks offers a wide range of kayaks and SUP’s, accessories such as paddles and PFD’s and is the company behind the market changing modular kayaks Tequila!, Martini, Mercury and Apollo kayaks as well as the modular stand up paddle board (SUP) the Rum Runner.
Point 65 Packs Sweden is the company behind the stylish and innovative hard shell packs known for their back and gear protection capabilities, outstanding quality and ergonomically superior carrying comfort.

Point 65 Sweden
Karlbergs strand 4, 171 73 Solna, Sweden | Phone +46 8-663 01 06 | e-mail: mail@point65.se
http://www.point65.com
facebook.com/Point65Kayaks

English: Modern sea kayak in west Wales

English: Modern sea kayak in west Wales (Photo credit: Wikipedia)


Commercial Summer Fatalities: 2014

Our condolences to the families of the deceased.

This list is not guaranteed to be accurate. The information is found from web searches and news dispatches. If you have a source for information on any fatality please leave a comment.

Whitewater fatalities are light blue

Medical fatalities are light red

This is up to date as of July 1, 2014

If this information is incorrect or incomplete please let me know. Thank You.

Date

State

Activity

Where

How

Outfitter or Guide Service

Sex

Home

Age

Source

Source

5/28

AZ

Whitewater Kayaking

Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Badger Rapid

Did not right his kayak

 

M

 

43

http://rec-law.us/SVpdfb

 

6/3

AZ

Whitewater Rafting

Colorado River, Grand Canyon

Allergic reaction

 

F

Seattle, WA

54

http://rec-law.us/1l4xk4K

 

6/7

CO

Whitewater Rafting

Clear Creek

Fell out of raft, possible respirator problems

 

M

Brighton, CO

41

http://rec-law.us/1uEp3Fc

http://rec-law.us/1rafOwq

6/10

CO

Whitewater Rafting

Arkansas River, Salt Lick

boat flipped or dump trucked

Royal Gorge Rafting

M

Enid, OK

48

http://rec-law.us/1spBsRI

http://rec-law.us/1niITC2

6/14

CO

Whitewater Rafting

Arkansas River, Royal Gorge

respiratory problems before he and five other rafters were tossed out

 

M

Colorado Springs, CO

44

http://rec-law.us/1nl63ZF

http://rec-law.us/1lXMEAj

6/16

CO

Whitewater Rafting

Roaring Fork river

Fell out of raft

Blazing Adventures

M

Denver, CO

44

http://rec-law.us/1lB7jey

 

6/27

ID

Whitewater Rafting

Salmon River, The Slide

Ejected from raft

Epley’s Whitewater Adventure

M

Poulsbo, WA

50

http://rec-law.us/1x79IAj

http://rec-law.us/1qPcLds

Several of the water fatalities can be medical. A sudden full body cold water immersion can cause vasoconstriction in the hear resulting in death. See the Wikipedia listing Cold shock response.

If you are unable to see this graph, please email me at Rec-law@recreation-law.com and I will send you a PDF of the page.

What do you think? Leave a comment.

If you like this let your friends know or post it on FB, Twitter or LinkedIn

Copyright 2013 Recreation Law (720) Edit Law

Email: Rec-law@recreation-law.com

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Twitter: RecreationLaw

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Facebook Page: Outdoor Recreation & Adventure Travel Law

Blog:www.recreation-law.com

Mobile Site: http://m.recreation-law.com

By Recreation Law    Rec-law@recreation-law.com      James H. Moss         #Authorrank

<rel=”author” link=” https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/112453188060350225356/” />

 

 

#RecreationLaw, #Recreation-Law.com, #OutdoorLaw, #OutdoorRecreationLaw, #AdventureTravelLaw, #law, #TravelLaw, #JimMoss, #JamesHMoss, #Tourism, #AdventureTourism, #Rec-Law, #RiskManagement, #CyclingLaw, #BicyclingLaw, #FitnessLaw, #Recreation-Law.com, #Backpacking, #Hiking, #Mountaineering, #IceClimbing, #RockClimbing, #RopesCourse, #ChallengeCourse, #SummerCamp, #Camps, #YouthCamps, #Skiing, #Ski Areas, #Negligence, #Snowboarding, #RecreationLaw, #@RecreationLaw, #Cycling.Law, #SkiLaw, #Outside.Law, #Recreation.Law, #RecreationLaw.com, #OutdoorLaw, #RecreationLaw, #OutdoorRecreationLaw, #AdventureTravelLaw, #Law, #TravelLaw, #JimMoss, #JamesHMoss, #AttorneyatLaw, #Tourism, #AdventureTourism, #RecLaw, #RecLawBlog, #RecreationLawBlog, #RiskManagement, #HumanPowered, #HumanPoweredRecreation,# CyclingLaw, #BicyclingLaw, #FitnessLaw, #RecreationLaw.com, #Backpacking, #Hiking, #Mountaineering, #IceClimbing, #RockClimbing, #RopesCourse, #ChallengeCourse, #SummerCamp, #Camps, #YouthCamps, #Skiing, #Ski Areas, #Negligence, #Snowboarding, sport and recreation laws, ski law, cycling law, Colorado law, law for recreation and sport managers, bicycling and the law, cycling and the law, ski helmet law, skiers code, skiing accidents, Recreation Lawyer, Ski Lawyer, Paddlesports Lawyer, Cycling Lawyer, Recreational Lawyer, Fitness Lawyer, Rec Lawyer, Challenge Course Lawyer, Ropes Course Lawyer, Zip Line Lawyer, Rock Climbing Lawyer, Adventure Travel Lawyer, Outside Lawyer, Recreation Lawyer, Ski Lawyer, Paddlesports Lawyer, Cycling Lawyer, #RecreationalLawyer, #FitnessLawyer, #RecLawyer, #ChallengeCourseLawyer, #RopesCourseLawyer, #ZipLineLawyer, #RockClimbingLawyer, #AdventureTravelLawyer, #OutsideLawyer, Good Samaritan, Samaritan, First Aid, Whitewater Rafting, Rafting, Commercial, Commercial Raft Company, Commercial Guide Service,

 


Louisiana court holds a tubing operation is not liable for drowning or failure to properly perform CPR. Court finds (or confuses) both no duty owed to prove negligence and assumption of the risk on the part of the deceased.

Louisiana is one state that does not allow the use of a release. (See States that do not Support the Use of a Release.) This limits the possible defenses in LA.

Parveen v. Tiki Tubing, LLC, 2011 1477 (La.App. 1 Cir. 03/23/12); 2012 La. App. Unpub. LEXIS 115

Date of the Decision: March 23, 2012

Plaintiff: Neelam Parveen, Individually and on Behalf of Mansoor Raja and their Minor Children

Defendant: Tiki Tubing, LLC and Abc Insurance Company

Plaintiff Claims: negligence, gross negligence, duty to maintain the river so that its guests would not be injured by the river’s vices and defects, a duty to train Tiki employees in emergency rescue and life-saving procedures, and a duty to properly warn Tiki customers of the hazards associated with tubing on the Amite River. Also failure of the employees of the defendant to perform CPR properly.

Defendant Defenses:

Holding: for the defendant tubing livery

The plaintiff is the husband of the deceased and mother of their children.

The defendant was a tubing rental (livery) operation on the Amite River in Louisiana. For the fee the defendant provides parking, a bus ride to the put in, tubes and a beach entry and exit. The Amite River is advertised by the defendant on it’s website at 1” to 3” deep with 6”-8” holes. The river is slow moving and smooth.

The defendant also states “Tiki . . . and its affiliates assume no liability for personal injury or loss of personal property.” The defendant provides life jackets free of charge however customers are not required to wear them. No one was aware of a prior drowning on the river. No employees of the defendant were trained in life saving or first aid or CPR.

The deceased was accompanied by two other companions. One of the three printed the other names on the release. The deceased did not sign the release. The three were also given safety instructions.

The men started leaving their tubes and swimming downstream for a short distance before waiting for the current to bring their tube to them. At some point the deceased went under the surface and did not come up. Eventually an employee found the deceased and got him to the surface.

A companion started CPR and was assisted by four other people including some employees of the defendant.

The plaintiff filed suit which was dismissed after the defendant filed a motion for summary judgment. The plaintiff appealed.

Summary of the case

The court outlined the plaintiff’s claims as:

Broadly stated, the plaintiff maintains that Tiki had custody of the tubing route on the Amite River and, accordingly, that Tiki owed its patrons a duty to maintain the river so that its guests would not be injured by the river’s vices and defects, a duty to train Tiki employees in emergency rescue and life-saving procedures, and a duty to properly warn Tiki customers of the hazards associated with tubing on the Amite River.

The plaintiff also alleges that once Tiki employees involved themselves in attempted life-saving procedures on Raja, those employees assumed a duty to perform those life-saving measures properly.

Under Louisiana law a tort is defined as:

The elements of a cause of action in tort are fault, causation, and damage. The existence of a legal duty and a breach of that duty are prerequisites to any determination of fault. Although the determination of whether to assign a legal duty is fact-specific, the issue of whether there is a duty ultimately is a question of law.

The court found that to prove her case the plaintiff must prove:

(1) Tiki is the custodian of the portion of the Amite River that includes the tubing route; (2) that portion of the Amite River is defective and that the defect presented an unreasonable risk of harm; (3) Tiki knew or should have known of the defect; (4) the plaintiff was damaged by the defect; and (5) Tiki could have prevented the damage to the plaintiff by the exercise of reasonable care, which Tiki failed to exercise.

Failure to prove one element defeats the plaintiff’s claims.

The court first looked at whether or not the defendant had control over the river to be liable for it. The court defines this as the defendant having custody and control over the river. To determine whether the defendant had the requisite custody and control the court held it had to consider:

(1) whether the person bears such a relationship as to have the right of direction and control over the thing; and (2) what, if any, kind of benefit the person derives from the thing. “The person who has custody or garde of a thing is he who has the legal duty to prevent its vice or defect from harming another.” This court has held that a state-owned river cannot be in the custody of a landowner.

Even if the plaintiff could prove the defendant’s “custody” of the river, the plaintiff would also have to prove that the river section at issue was defective.

This court has held that the “existence of a hole in a natural lake, that renders the depth of the lake deeper than other portions, would not, ipso facto, constitute a defective. Further, “variations in water depth within natural swimming areas are standard.” Citing this court in Johnson, the Fourth Circuit has concluded that there is no distinction between a hole in a lake and a drop off in a river. The plaintiff fails to establish that the deeper pocket in this natural body of water constitutes a defect for purposes of Article 2317.1.

The conditions of the river at the time of the decedents drowning were all conditions that under Louisiana law were inherent risks and thus assumed by the deceased.

The court next looked the risks of tubing.

Tubing has been defined as an activity that is obviously and inherently dangerous. Drowning because of currents is a natural and inevitable risk to swimmers in a natural body of water. When a risk is obvious, there is no duty to warn or protect against it.

The court concluded the deceased voluntarily left this tube to swim in the river without a life jacket.

The court then looked at the issue of failure to perform CPR properly. Under Louisiana law if a person voluntarily undertakes a “task that he otherwise has no duty to perform, he must nevertheless perform that task in a reasonable or prudent manner.

Although the plaintiff’s expert witness stated that CPR was performed improperly, no one was able to claim that the actions of the defendant employees were “unreasonable, imprudent, or, more importantly, a cause-in-fact of Raja’s death or that there was a reasonable probability that proper CPR would have been lifesaving in these circumstances.”

The court found since no one could point that a specific employee or employees had done something wrong in performing CPR then that claim must also fail.

The court upheld the trial courts motion for summary judgment with this statement.” Despite not being a good swimmer, Raja willingly entered the river without a life jacket and chose to swim away from his tube. It was Raja’s own imprudent actions that led to his tragic death.”

So Now What?

Louisiana law came from the Napoleonic code. Consequently the laws in Louisiana are generally different, other than the protections afforded by the US constitution. Louisiana does not allow the use of a release to stop claims.

C.C. Art. 2004 (2005)

Any clause is null that, in advance, excludes or limits the liability of one party for intentional or gross fault that causes damage to the other party. Any clause is null that, in advance, excludes or limits the liability of one party for causing physical injury to the other party.

See States that do not Support the Use of a Release.

Here the court seemed to combine the issue to find the defendant owed no duty to the deceased and the deceased assumed the risk of the activity which lead to his death, without using the terms specifically.

 

What do you think? Leave a comment.

If you like this let your friends know or post it on FaceBook, Twitter or LinkedIn

Copyright 2014 Recreation Law (720) Edit Law

Email: Rec-law@recreation-law.com

Google+: +Recreation

Twitter: RecreationLaw

Facebook: Rec.Law.Now

Facebook Page: Outdoor Recreation & Adventure Travel Law

Blog: www.recreation-law.com

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By Recreation Law       Rec-law@recreation-law.com              James H. Moss               #Authorrank

<rel=”author” link=” https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/112453188060350225356/” />

#AdventureTourism, #AdventureTravelLaw, #AdventureTravelLawyer, #AttorneyatLaw, #Backpacking, #BicyclingLaw, #Camps, #ChallengeCourse, #ChallengeCourseLaw, #ChallengeCourseLawyer, #CyclingLaw, #FitnessLaw, #FitnessLawyer, #Hiking, #HumanPowered, #HumanPoweredRecreation, #IceClimbing, #JamesHMoss, #JimMoss, #Law, #Mountaineering, #Negligence, #OutdoorLaw, #OutdoorRecreationLaw, #OutsideLaw, #OutsideLawyer, #RecLaw, #Rec-Law, #RecLawBlog, #Rec-LawBlog, #RecLawyer, #RecreationalLawyer, #RecreationLaw, #RecreationLawBlog, #RecreationLawcom, #Recreation-Lawcom, #Recreation-Law.com, #RiskManagement, #RockClimbing, #RockClimbingLawyer, #RopesCourse, #RopesCourseLawyer, #SkiAreas, #Skiing, #SkiLaw, #Snowboarding, #SummerCamp, #Tourism, #TravelLaw, #YouthCamps, #ZipLineLawyer, Tubing, Livery, Drowning, Amite River, Assumption of the Risk, Custody and Control, CPR,

 


Parveen v. Tiki Tubing, LLC, 2011 1477 (La.App. 1 Cir. 03/23/12); 2012 La. App. Unpub. LEXIS 115

Parveen v. Tiki Tubing, LLC, 2011 1477 (La.App. 1 Cir. 03/23/12); 2012 La. App. Unpub. LEXIS 115

Neelam Parveen, Individually and on Behalf of Mansoor Raja and their Minor Children Versus Tiki Tubing, LLC and Abc Insurance Company

NO. 2011 CA 1477

COURT OF APPEAL OF LOUISIANA, FIRST CIRCUIT

2011 1477 (La.App. 1 Cir. 03/23/12); 2012 La. App. Unpub. LEXIS 115

March 23, 2012, Judgment Rendered

NOTICE: NOT DESIGNATED FOR PUBLICATION.

PLEASE CONSULT THE LOUISIANA RULES OF APPELLATE PROCEDURE FOR CITATION OF UNPUBLISHED OPINIONS.

SUBSEQUENT HISTORY: Writ denied by Parveen v. Tiki Tubing, LLC, 90 So. 3d 1063, 2012 La. LEXIS 1798 (La., June 15, 2012)

PRIOR HISTORY: [*1]

On Appeal from the 21st Judicial District Court, in and for the Parish of Livingston, State of Louisiana. District Court No. 128,216. The Honorable Elizabeth P. Wolfe, Judge Presiding.

DISPOSITION: AFFIRMED.

COUNSEL: Nicholas M. Graphia, Monroe, La., Counsel for Plaintiff/Appellant, Neelam Parveen, individually and on behalf of Mansoor Raja and their minor children.

C. David Vasser, Jr., Baton Rouge, La., Counsel for Defendant/Appellee, Tiki Tubing, L.L.C.

JUDGES: BEFORE: CARTER, C.J., PARRO AND HIGGINBOTHAM, JJ.

OPINION BY: CARTER

OPINION

[Pg 2] CARTER, C.J.

The plaintiff appeals the summary judgment dismissing her suit for damages arising from the drowning death of her husband. For the reasons that follow, we affirm.

STATEMENT OF FACTS AND PROCEDURAL HISTORY

Tiki Tubing, L.L.C. (Tiki) is a commercial enterprise located on the banks of the Amite River. During peak summer months, Tiki employs 10-15 full time employees. For a fee, Tiki provides customers with parking, tube rental, a bus ride upstream, and a beach entry and exit on the river. The tubing route on the Amite River takes approximately four hours to complete. The Tiki website describes the Amite River as “smooth and slow moving and … 1 to 3 feet deep with a few deeper holes from [*2] 6 to 8 feet deep.” The website continues: “All bodies of water have some inherent risks. Tiki . . . and its affiliates assume no liability for personal injury or loss of personal property.” The tubers are grouped together at the Tiki hut and bused upstream to the ingress point on the river. At this point, the tubers select their tubes and enter the water.

According to John Fore, the managing member of Tiki, there are no warning signs posted at the hut or along the river. Tiki provides life jackets free of charge to customers; however, customers are not required to wear them. Neither Fore nor the Tiki employees were aware of any prior drowning on the tubing route. There are no lifeguards or rescuers on staff, and employees are not trained in water safety or in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Tiki employees do not travel the river with the tubers, and there is no emergency equipment along the river route or at the Tiki [Pg 3] facility. Tiki does hire off-duty Livingston Parish Deputies as independent contractors to assist with crowd control, public drinking, drugs, broken glass, and unlocking of cars. The deputies are not posted on the tubing route; they are not hired to handle medical [*3] emergencies.

On June 21, 2009, 37-year-old Mansoor Raja and two of his friends decided to tube the Amite River. Raja had never tubed before, and after reading about Tiki from its internet website, Raja, Akhlaq Akhtar, and Tariq Mehmood drove to the facility. The group was presented with a liability waiver at the hut, and Akhtar printed all three men’s names on the bottom of the sheet.1 Although Raja was with Akhtar when Akhtar completed the form, Raja did not read or sign the waiver. Akhtar remembered the men being given a document containing safety instructions and that this information also was posted on a board. According to Akhtar, all three men read the instructions, which specifically mentioned the availability of life jackets. Akhtar asked the other men if they needed life jackets, but the general consensus was that the water would not be deep enough and that the life jackets were not needed. The waiver sheet is the only “warning” at the Tiki facility.

1 The waiver is entitled “Participant’s Agreement, Release, and Assumption of Risk.” The bottom of the form has multiple lines upon which customers write their names.

The three men boarded the bus, rode upstream, retrieved their tubes, [*4] and entered the river. According to Akhtar, Raja and Mehmood were playing around and getting caught in trees in the water. Akhtar tried to rush the other two men along so that they would not get separated from the group. The water was shallow, and Raja and Mehmood were leaving their tubes and [Pg 4] swimming freely in the river. The three men continued in this fashion for 15 to 20 minutes.

On the river trip, Raja was “getting excited.” He would leave his tube, swim downstream with the current, then wait for his tube to float to him. Raja did this four or five times. The men stopped to take a photograph, after which Raja said he would swim just one more length. Suddenly, while swimming ahead of his tube, Raja disappeared under the water. Then, Mehmood began having trouble in the water. Akhtar floated toward his friends and was able to help Mehmood get hold of the tube and out of the water. Raja, however, panicked and was unable to grasp the tube. According to Akhtar, the water was “too far deep” and moving much faster underneath the surface. Akhtar did not leave his tube in an attempt to pull Raja from the water because, according to Akhtar, the water was too deep and the current would [*5] have pulled him under too. Akhtar explained: “If you go to somebody who’s drowning, he’ll take you with him even if you are [a] good swimmer….”

Other floaters, noticing the commotion, began calling for help; the authorities were alerted with a call to 911, and another tuber ran toward the ingress point where several employees were working to notify them that someone was “lost.” Christopher Seese, a teenage employee of Tiki, stated that he first thought someone had simply gotten off his tube and run off. Upon realizing there was a problem, three employees ran to the scene. Fifteen to twenty tubers were sitting on the beach, and several tubers were swimming around in the deeper area of the river. The employees immediately entered the river. It took Christopher five to ten minutes to [Pg 5] locate Raja in the eight-foot-deep pocket in the river by dragging his foot in the water. Raja’s body was resting against a submerged log. According to Christopher, the current in the pocket was no stronger than the rest of the river; however, the water was deeper. It was estimated that it took an additional three to four minutes to get Raja out of the water and onto the shore.

Raja was brought to [*6] the shore, and another tuber was the first to attempt CPR. Because he was on the opposite side of the river, Akhtar estimated that it took him ten minutes to get to Raja after he was pulled from the water. Upon reaching shore, Akhtar observed that the unidentified tuber was performing CPR incorrectly, so Akhtar took over.2 Akhtar blew air into Raja’s chest, and Tiki employee Jacob Bourgeois assisted with chest compressions. Ultimately, four different people performed chest compressions on Raja, assisting Akhtar with CPR until the rescue helicopter arrived. According to Akhtar, Raja’s pulse was restored and he was warm to the touch prior to the arrival of paramedics and being airlifted to a hospital. Raja’s death certificate indicates he died the next day, June 22, 2009.

2 Akhtar explained that he had received training in CPR during military service.

Raja’s surviving spouse, Neelam Parveen, filed this wrongful death and survival action for damages against Tiki and its insurer, alleging Tiki’s negligent acts and omissions were a proximate cause of Raja’s death. After answering the petition, Tiki filed a motion for summary judgment, alleging Tiki did not breach any legal duty to Raja. Subsequent [*7] to the filing of Tiki’s motion for summary judgment, but prior to the hearing on the motion, the trial court granted the plaintiff leave to file a supplemental and amending [Pg 6] petition for damages. Therein the plaintiff alleged that she was entitled to punitive damages under general maritime law in that Tiki’s conduct was grossly negligent, reckless, and wanton. Thereafter, the plaintiff filed an opposition to Tiki’s motion for summary judgment, with attachments thereto, as well as a supplemental opposition.

Following a hearing, the trial court granted Tiki’s motion for summary judgment, and the plaintiff’s claims against Tiki were dismissed with prejudice. The plaintiff appeals, asserting several arguments in support of her position that summary judgment was improperly granted.

SUMMARY JUDGMENT

A motion for summary judgment is a procedural device used to avoid a full-scale trial when there is no genuine issue of material fact. All Crane Rental of Georgia, Inc. v. Vincent, 10-0116 (La. App. 1 Cir. 9/10/10), 47 So. 3d 1024, 1027, writ denied, 10-2227 (La. 11/19/10), 49 So. 3d 387. Summary judgment is properly granted if the pleadings, depositions, answers to interrogatories, and admissions [*8] on file, together with affidavits, if any, show that there is no genuine issue of material fact and that the mover is entitled to judgment as a matter of law. La. Code Civ. Proc. Ann. art. 966B. Summary judgment is favored and designed to secure the just, speedy, and inexpensive determination of every action. La. Code Civ. Proc. Ann. art. 966A(2).

Appellate courts review evidence de novo under the same criteria that govern the trial court’s determination of whether summary judgment is appropriate. All Crane, 47 So. 3d at 1027. On a motion for summary judgment, the burden of proof is on the mover. La. Code Civ. Proc. Ann. art. 966C(2) [Pg 7]. If, however, the mover will not bear the burden of proof at trial on the matter that is before the court on the motion, the mover’s burden does not require that all essential elements of the adverse party’s claim, action, or defense be negated. Id. Instead, the mover must point out to the court that there is an absence of factual support for one or more elements essential to the adverse party’s claim, action, or defense. Id. Thereafter, the adverse party must produce factual evidence sufficient to establish that he will be able to satisfy his evidentiary [*9] burden of proof at trial. Id. If the adverse party fails to meet this burden, there is no genuine issue of material fact, and the mover is entitled to summary judgment as a matter of law. La. Code Civ. Proc. Ann. art. 966C(2); All Crane, 47 So. 3d at 1027.

In ruling on a motion for summary judgment, the court’s role is not to evaluate the weight of the evidence or to determine the truth of the matter but, instead, to determine whether there is a genuine issue of triable fact. All Crane, 47 So. 3d at 1027. A court cannot make credibility decisions on a motion for summary judgment. Id. In deciding a motion for summary judgment, the court must assume that all of the witnesses are credible. Id. Factual inferences reasonably drawn from the evidence must be construed in favor of the party opposing the motion, and all doubt must be resolved in the opponent’s favor. Id. Whether a particular fact in dispute is “material” for summary judgment purposes is viewed in light of the substantive law applicable to the case. Richard v. Hall, 03-1488 (La. 4/23/04), 874 So. 2d 131, 137.

[Pg 8] DISCUSSION

The plaintiff advances several theories of recovery for the alleged negligence or gross negligence of Tiki. [*10] Broadly stated, the plaintiff maintains that Tiki had custody of the tubing route on the Amite River and, accordingly, that Tiki owed its patrons a duty to maintain the river so that its guests would not be injured by the river’s vices and defects, a duty to train Tiki employees in emergency rescue and life-saving procedures, and a duty to properly warn Tiki customers of the hazards associated with tubing on the Amite River. The plaintiff also alleges that once Tiki employees involved themselves in attempted life-saving procedures on Raja, those employees assumed a duty to perform those life-saving measures properly.

The elements of a cause of action in tort are fault, causation, and damage. Seals v. Morris, 410 So. 2d 715, 718 (La. 1981). The existence of a legal duty and a breach of that duty are prerequisites to any determination of fault. Id. Although the determination of whether to assign a legal duty is fact-specific, the issue of whether there is a duty ultimately is a question of law. Bowman v. City of Baton Rouge/Parish of East Baton Rouge, 02-1376 (La. App. 1 Cir. 5/9/03), 849 So. 2d 622, 627, writ denied, 03-1579 (La. 10/3/03), 855 So. 2d 315. The inquiry is whether the plaintiff [*11] has any law–statutory, jurisprudential, or arising from general principles of fault– to support her claim. Faucheaux v. Terrebonne Consol. Government, 615 So. 2d 289, 292 (La. 1993); Fredericks v. Daiquiris & Creams of Mandeville, L.L.C, 04-0567 (La. App. 1 Cir. 3/24/05), 906 So. 2d 636, 639, writ denied, 05-1047 (La. 6/17/05), 904 So. 2d 706.

[Pg 9] Under Louisiana Civil Code article 2317, “[w]e are responsible, not only for the damage occasioned by our own act, but for that which is caused by the act of persons for whom we are answerable, or of the things which we have in our custody.” Louisiana Civil Code article 2317.1 modifies Article 2317 and provides in pertinent part:

[The] custodian of a thing is answerable for damage occasioned by its ruin, vice, or defect, only upon a showing that he knew or, in the exercise of reasonable care, should have known of the ruin, vice, or defect which caused the damage, that the damage could have been prevented by the exercise of reasonable care, and that he failed to exercise such reasonable care.

The plaintiff alleges that in accordance with Article 2317.1, Tiki, as custodian3 of the tubing route on the Amite River, owed a duty to its patrons [*12] to employ safety measures to prevent drowning and to discover any unreasonably dangerous condition and to either correct the condition or warn of its existence. In order to prevail on a claim of negligence under Articles 2317 and 2317.1, the plaintiff will have the ultimate burden at trial of proving by a preponderance of the evidence each of the following elements: (1) Tiki is the custodian of the portion of the Amite River that includes the tubing route; (2) that portion of the Amite River is defective and that the defect presented an unreasonable risk of harm; (3) Tiki knew or should have known of the defect; (4) the plaintiff was damaged by the defect; and (5) Tiki could have prevented the damage to the plaintiff by the exercise of reasonable care, which Tiki failed to exercise. See Riggs v. Opelousas General Hosp. Trust Authority, 08-591 (La. App. 3 Cir. 11/5/08), 997 So. 2d 814, 817. Failure to prove any one of these elements will defeat the [Pg 10] plaintiff’s claim and thus establish the defendant’s entitlement to summary judgment. See Grogan v. Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Inc., 07-1297 (La. App. 3 Cir. 4/16/08), 981 So. 2d 162, 165.

3 There are no allegations or evidence [*13] suggesting that Tiki owned the area of the river, or the land abutting that portion of the river, in which Raja drowned.

The Louisiana Supreme Court has instructed that determining who has custody of a thing is a fact-driven determination. Dupree v. City of New Orleans, 99-3651 (La. 8/31/00), 765 So. 2d 1002, 1009. Courts should consider: (1) whether the person bears such a relationship as to have the right of direction and control over the thing; and (2) what, if any, kind of benefit the person derives from the thing. Dupree, 765 So. 2d at 1009. “The person who has custody or garde of a thing is he who has the legal duty to prevent its vice or defect from harming another.” Id. at 1009. This court has held that a state-owned river cannot be in the custody of a landowner. See Tobey v. State, 454 So. 2d 144, 145 (La. App. 1st Cir. 1984) (a tubing accident did not result from any condition of the land).

Even if the plaintiff were to establish that material issues of fact remain in dispute regarding custody of the tubing route on the Amite River, the plaintiff also must prove that the portion of the Amite River at issue suffered from a vice or defect in order to recover damages under Articles 2317 [*14] and 2317.1. A defect is defined as a condition that creates an unreasonable risk of harm. Moory v. Allstate Ins. Co., 04-0319 (La. App. 1 Cir. 2/11/05), 906 So. 2d 474, 480, writ denied, 05-0668 (La. 4/29/05), 901 So. 2d 1076. The record establishes that Raja drowned in an area of the river described as a drop or a deep pocket. This court has held that the “existence of a hole in a natural lake, that renders the depth of the lake deeper than other portions, would not, ipso facto, constitute a defective [Pg 11] condition.”4 Johnson v. City of Morgan City, 99-2968 (La. App. 1 Cir. 12/22/00), 787 So. 2d 326, 330-31, writ denied, 01-0134 (La. 3/16/01), 787 So. 2d 315. Further, “variations in water depth within natural swimming areas are standard.” Johnson, 787 So. 2d at 330. Citing this court in Johnson, the Fourth Circuit has concluded that there is no distinction between a hole in a lake and a drop off in a river. Sevin v. Parish of Plaquemines, 04-1439 (La. App. 4 Cir. 4/27/05), 901 So. 2d 619, 623-24, writ denied, 05-1790 (La. 1/27/06), 922 So. 2d 550. The plaintiff fails to establish that the deeper pocket in this natural body of water constitutes a defect for purposes of Article 2317.1.

4 Moreover, [*15] not every defect gives rise to statutory liability under Articles 2317 and 2317.1. Ruschel v. St. Amant, 11-78 (La. App. 5 Cir. 5/24/11), 66 So. 3d 1149, 1153. The defect must be of such a nature as to constitute a dangerous condition that reasonably would be expected to cause injury to a prudent person using ordinary care under the circumstances. Ruschel, 66 So. 3d at 1153.

The plaintiff argues that Tiki had a duty to provide an adequate and correct warning to customers regarding the dangers of tubing and the depth and current of the Amite River, and also had a duty to post lifeguards along the tubing route.5 Tubing has been defined as an activity that is obviously and inherently dangerous. See Tobey, 454 So. 2d at 146. Drowning because of currents is a natural and inevitable risk to swimmers in a natural body of water. See Hall v. Lemieux, 378 So. 2d 130, 132 (La. App. 4th Cir. 1979), [Pg 12] writ denied, 381 So. 2d 1220 (La. 1980). When a risk is obvious, there is no duty to warn or protect against it. Moory, 906 So. 2d at 478. Akhtar described Raja as “not a good swimmer.”6 Despite his limited swimming abilities and knowing that the water was over his head in parts, Raja voluntarily [*16] left his tube to swim freely in the river without a life jacket, allowing the current to carry him away from his tube.

5 Louisiana’s general negligence liability provision is found in Louisiana Civil Code article 2315. Louisiana courts have adopted a duty-risk analysis in determining whether to impose liability under Article 2315. Pinsonneault v. Merchants & Farmers Bank & Trust Co., 01-2217 (La. 4/3/02), 816 So. 2d 270, 275. In order for liability to attach under a duty-risk analysis, the plaintiff must prove five separate elements: (1) the defendant had a duty to conform his or her conduct to a specific standard of care (the duty element); (2) the defendant failed to conform his or her conduct to the appropriate standard of care (the breach of duty element); (3) the defendant’s substandard conduct was a cause-in-fact of the plaintiff’s injuries (the cause-in-fact element); (4) the defendant’s substandard conduct was a legal cause of the plaintiff’s injuries (the scope of protection element); and (5) actual damages (the damage element). Pinsonneault, 816 So. 2d at 275-76.

6 During the few times that Akhtar and Raja swam together in a pool, Raja would swim one pool length at a time, keeping [*17] his head out of the water the entire time. Raja would go in water over his head; however, he would hold onto a “pipe.”

Finally, citing to Harris v. Pizza Hut of La., Inc., 455 So. 2d 1364 (La. 1984), the plaintiff argues that Tiki assumed a duty when its employees attempted life-saving measures on Raja and then breached that duty by improperly performing CPR on Raja. In Harris, the supreme court held that a restaurant had a duty, once it hired a security guard, to have that guard protect patrons from the criminal activities of third persons in a reasonable and prudent manner. Id. at 1369. This court has recognized that the negligent breach of an assumed duty may create civil liability. McGowan v. Victory and Power Ministries, 99-0235 (La. App. 1 Cir. 3/31/00), 757 So. 2d 912, 914. If a person voluntarily or gratuitously undertakes a task that he otherwise has no duty to perform, he must nevertheless perform that task in a reasonable or prudent manner. McGowan, 757 So. 2d at 914; see La. Civ. Code Ann. art. 2315.

Tiki employees acknowledged having no formal CPR training. Akhtar stated that he had been trained in CPR, and Akhtar was performing breathing assistance on Raja, while several [*18] others–including Tiki employees–assisted with chest compressions on Raja. The affidavit of the [Pg 13] plaintiff’s expert, Dr. Adam Broussard, set forth the CPR guidelines and concluded that, based on Jacob’s deposition, “the responders did not correctly perform CPR.” Dr. Broussard’s affidavit establishes that early CPR “performed correctly is the single most important intervention that can be performed in the field by a lay person.”

Raja was pulled from the water after being submerged for at least ten minutes. Akhtar stated that when Raja was brought up to the surface, he was not moving and not conscious. Akhtar began breathing into Raja with the assistance of four others, who took turns doing chest compressions. Akhtar observed that after the second person’s turn with chest compressions, Raja was warm to the touch and a pulse was discernible. Although Dr. Broussard’s affidavit establishes that CPR was performed improperly, his affidavit does not establish that the efforts of Tiki employees were unreasonable, imprudent, or, more importantly, a cause-in-fact of Raja’s death or that there was a reasonable probability that proper CPR would have been lifesaving in these circumstances.

CONCLUSION

The [*19] plaintiff failed to produce factual evidence sufficient to establish that she would be able to meet her burden at trial of proving by a preponderance of the evidence all of the elements of a cause of action in negligence or gross negligence. Despite not being a good swimmer, Raja willingly entered the river without a life jacket and chose to swim away from his tube. It was Raja’s own imprudent actions that led to his tragic death. See Sevin, 901 So. 2d at 624. For the above-stated reasons, we affirm the trial court’s grant of summary judgment in favor of the defendant, Tiki [Pg 14] Tubing, L.L.C, dismissing the suit filed against it by Neelam Parveen, individually and on behalf of Mansoor Raja and their minor children. Costs of this appeal are assessed to the plaintiff, Neelam Parveen.

AFFIRMED.

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Wroblewski v. Ohiopyle Trading Post, Inc., 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 119206

Wroblewski v. Ohiopyle Trading Post, Inc., 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 119206

Cari J. Wroblewski, Plaintiff, v. Ohiopyle Trading Post, Inc., Defendant.

Civil Action No. 12-0780

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE WESTERN DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA

2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 119206

August 22, 2013, Decided

August 22, 2013, Filed

COUNSEL: [*1] For CARI J. WROBLEWSKI, Plaintiff: Emmanuel J. Argentieri, LEAD ATTORNEY, Parker McCay, Mount Laurel, NJ; Gary F. Piserchia, PRO HAC VICE, Parker McCay P.A., Mt. Laurel, NJ.

For OHIOPYLE TRADING POST, INC., Defendant: P. Brennan Hart, LEAD ATTORNEY, Jeanette H. Ho, Pietragallo, Bosick & Gordon, Pittsburgh, PA; John R. Brumberg, Pietragallo Gordon Alfano Bosick & Raspanti, LLP, Pittsburgh, PA.

JUDGES: Mark R. Hornak, United States District Judge.

OPINION BY: Mark R. Hornak

OPINION

Mark R. Hornak, United States District Judge

Cari Wroblewski brings suit against Ohiopyle Trading Post, Inc. (“Ohiopyle”) alleging that she suffered injuries to her knee as a result of Defendant’s negligence and gross negligence when she was thrown from her raft during a white water rafting trip. Ohiopyle argues that it is entitled to summary judgment because (1) Plaintiff signed a Rental Agreement which contained a provision releasing Defendant from liability (“Release”) for the very claims made in this matter and (2) Defendant did not have a duty to protect Plaintiff from being thrown from a raft and striking a rock because these are inherent risks of white water rafting. These matters, having been fully briefed by the parties and oral [*2] argument having been presented, are ripe for disposition. For the reasons which follow, Ohiopyle’s Motion for Summary Judgment is granted.

I. Background

Cari Wroblewski was 37 years old at the time of the incident that forms the basis of this lawsuit. Wroblewski Dep. 7:4-5. She holds an associate’s degree in business as well as a bachelor’s degree in accounting. Id. at 8:18-9:19. In April 2010, two months prior to the trip at issue in this case, Plaintiff went white water rafting on the Salt River in Arizona where she signed a rental agreement with a release and was informed that white water rafting could be dangerous and that she could fall out of the raft. Id. 16:21-17:7; 20:14-21:9.

One of Plaintiff’s friends, Steve Rose, made arrangements to rent equipment from Ohiopyle for a rafting trip on the Youghiogheny River with a group of their friends on June 11, 2010. ECF No. 21 ¶ 2; ECF No. 25 ¶ 2. Joel Means, one of the owners of Ohiopyle, testified in his deposition that the lower section of the Youghiogheny River is considered “the intermediate white water section of the River” and consists of Class I through Class III rapids with borderline Class IV at certain levels. Means Dep. 14:8-15:1. [*3] Plaintiff had been told, not by an Ohiopyle employee but most likely by one of her friends in the group, that the rapids on the river would be mild, level two and three rapids. Wroblewski Dep. 37:6-23. 1

1 “Q: What made you think before then that the rapids were levels two or three?

A: From what I had been told they were supposed to be rather mild rapids.

Q: Who told you that they were rather mild rapids?

A: I don’t recall.

Q: It wasn’t anyone from Ohiopyle Trading Post; was it?

A: No

Q: Was it one of the people in your group that went white water rafting that day?

A: Most likely.” Wroblewski Dep. 37:6-23.

On the morning of June 11, 2010, Means noticed that the river was “up and brown” from rain the night before, and that the water level had risen from 2.5 to 3.98 feet. Means Dep. 19:2-11. When the river’s water level reaches four (4) feet, rafters are required by state regulations to have an experienced guide accompany them on their rafting trip. 2 Id. 60:3-6. Ohiopyle is permitted to provide guided white water rafting tours when the level of the river is between four (4) and ten (10) feet. ECF No. 31. Means testified that the river level being of above average flow could make the rafting trip [*4] more difficult, but that the river is more dangerous at low levels than at high levels. Means Dep. 47:18-22.

2 At oral argument, Plaintiff’s counsel persistently argued not that the river level actually was four (4) feet at the time at issue, but that the Court should treat it as if it were. The Court knows of no record basis to do so.

Plaintiff and her friends traveled to the Youghiogheny River for the white water rafting trip on the morning of June 11, 2010. ECF No. 21 ¶ 1; ECF No. 25 ¶ 1. Upon arriving at the River, Plaintiff went to the bathroom for “quite a while” while the rest of her group started to get their rented equipment. ECF No. 25 at 2, ¶ 1; Wroblewski Dep. 31:8-19. Means informed the rest of Plaintiff’s group that the level of the river was above average flow that day and therefore the river that day was a “real white water river” and not a “float trip.” Means Dep. 16:16-17. Means told Steve Rose that if he and the others in the group no longer wished to rent equipment, Ohiopyle would provide the group with a guided whitewater rafting tour at a discounted rate of $40 per person rather than the usual price of $60 per person (a non-guided rafting trip costs about $20 per [*5] person). Id. 38:9-14; 46:21-47:8. Plaintiffs group declined the offer of a discounted guided rafting trip. Means also instructed his employees that day to “make sure [the group understood] what game they’re about to play,” in reference to the river. Id. 39:11-15. Presumably because she was in the bathroom, Plaintiff never heard from Means his advice as to the conditions of the river or offer of a guided tour. Wroblewski Dep. 32:2-12.

When Plaintiff was finished in the bathroom, she went to get her equipment from Ohiopyle and was “in a rush” because her friends had gotten a head start. ECF No. 25 at 2, ¶¶ 2-3; Wroblewski Dep. 31:8-19. An Ohiopyle employee handed Plaintiff a Rental Agreement and told her that she “needed to sign the form and meet up with [her] group because they were getting their gear.” ECF No. 25 at 2, ¶ 5; Wroblewski Dep. 76:6-21. Plaintiff testified that “[t]hey hurried me along” and she was not given an opportunity to read the Rental Agreement. Wroblewski Dep. 78:7; 76:22-23. She also testified that the Ohiopyle employee “didn’t ask me to read it, they just gave it to me and said please sign this and catch up with your group, they’re already getting their stuff.” [*6] Id. 78:3-13. Plaintiff signed Ohiopyle’s Rental Agreement which included a waiver and release of liability provision (“Release”). ECF No. 19-5. 3

3 Plaintiff was not the last person in her group to sign the Rental Agreement, as her signature is the second to last signature on the Rental Agreement. ECF No. 19-5.

After receiving her rafting equipment, Plaintiff and her group received a safety briefing by an Ohiopyle employee before being sent to the river to embark on their trip. ECF No. 25 ¶ 8; Wroblewski Dep. 32:13-16. In the safety briefing, Plaintiff was warned that white water rafting can be dangerous, and it was possible that participants could fall out of the raft. Wroblewski Dep. 33:6-12.

After rafting through the first set of river rapids, Plaintiff grew concerned that the rapids were not level two or three. Id. 37:6-10. Plaintiff stated that she was concerned that the river was more than she could handle, and that she considered getting off of the river but “[t]here was no place to get off.” Id. 40:5-16. Plaintiff did not express her concerns to any others on the rafting trip. Id. 40:10-1. Near the end of the whitewater rafting trip, Plaintiff was thrown from the raft. ECF No. [*7] 21 ¶ 5; ECF No. 25 ¶ 5; Wroblewski Dep. 41:12-20. According to Plaintiff, she was dragged under water and struck her knee on a rock, sustaining serious injuries. ECF No. 21 ¶ 6; ECF No. 25 ¶ 6; Wroblewski Dep. 41:21-42:1.

Plaintiff filed this action against Defendant in June 2012. ECF No. 1. Defendant moved for summary judgment. ECF Nos. 19, 20, 21. Plaintiff filed her response, ECF Nos. 24, 25, and Defendant filed a reply as well as a supplement. ECF Nos. 26, 27, 31. For the reasons discussed below, Defendant’s Motion for Summary Judgment is granted.

II. Standard

Summary judgment is appropriate when “there is no genuine dispute as to any material fact and the movant is entitled to judgment as a matter of law.” Fed. R. Civ. P. 56(a); Celotex Corp. v. Catrett, 477 U.S. 317, 322-23, 106 S. Ct. 2548, 91 L. Ed. 2d 265 (1986). The parties must support their position by “citing to particular parts of materials in the record, including depositions, documents, electronically stored information, affidavits or declarations, stipulations (including those made for purposes of the motion only), admissions, interrogatory answers, or other materials.” Fed. R. Civ. P. 56(c)(1)(A). In other words, summary judgment may be granted only if [*8] there exists no genuine issue of material fact that would permit a reasonable jury to find for the non-moving party. See Anderson v. Liberty Lobby, Inc. 477 U.S. 242, 250, 106 S. Ct. 2505, 91 L. Ed. 2d 202 (1986).

In reviewing the evidence, the court draws all reasonable inferences in favor of the non-moving party. See Reeves v. Sanderson Plumbing Prods., Inc., 530 U.S. 133, 150, 120 S. Ct. 2097, 147 L. Ed. 2d 105 (2000); Matsushita Elec. Indus. Co. v. Zenith Radio Corp., 475 U.S. 574, 587-88, 106 S. Ct. 1348, 89 L. Ed. 2d 538 (1986); Huston v. Procter & Gamble Paper Prod. Corp., 568 F.3d 100, 104 (3d Cir.2009) (citations omitted). It is not the court’s role to weigh the disputed evidence and decide which is more probative, or to make credibility determinations. See Anderson, 477 U.S. at 255; Marino v. Indus. Crating Co., 358 F.3d 241, 247 (3d Cir. 2004); Boyle v. Cnty. of Allegheny, 139 F.3d 386, 393 (3d Cir. 1998). “Only disputes over facts that might affect the outcome of the suit under the governing law will properly preclude the entry of summary judgment.” Anderson, 477 U.S. at 247-48 (1986). An issue is “genuine” if a reasonable jury could possibly hold in the non-movant’s favor with regard to that issue. See id. “Where the record taken as a whole could not lead a reasonable trier [*9] of fact to find for the nonmoving party, there is no ‘genuine issue for trial.’” Matsushita, 475 U.S. at 587; Huston, 568 F.3d at 104.

III. Discussion

Ohiopyle advances two arguments in support of its summary judgment motion. First, Defendant submits that the Rental Agreement form signed by Plaintiff contained a valid and enforceable release of liability in favor of Defendant, releasing Defendant from liability for the very claims made in this matter. Secondly, Defendant argues that it did not have a duty to protect Plaintiff from being thrown from a raft and striking a rock because these are inherent risks of white water rafting, and this Defendant should not have any liability.

On June 11, 2010, prior to white water rafting, Plaintiff signed a two-page document that contains a release of liability and is titled “RENTAL AGREEMENT” in capital letters at the top of its first page. ECF No. 19-5. The top half of the first page is a form to be filled out with information relating to the primary renter and the white water rafting equipment to be rented. Id.

The bottom half of the first page begins with the header “TERMS AND CONDITIONS,” with thirteen (13) paragraphs listed in three columns [*10] under this header. Id. The actual language releasing Ohiopyle from liability regardless of its own negligence is listed as paragraph nine (9) in this section. Id. The font of the Release language is the same size as the other paragraphs listed under “TERMS AND CONDITIONS” but, unlike the other paragraphs, is written in all capital letters. Id. The exculpatory clause consequently falls on the bottom half of the front side of the first page, in both the left and middle columns and, by itself, makes up approximately half of the language listed under “TERMS AND CONDITIONS.” Id.

Paragraph nine (9) contains the following language:

9. READ CAREFULLY THE FOLLOWING WAIVER AND RELEASE OF LIABILITY: HAVING RECEIVED A SAFETY TALK BY A MEMBER OP LESSOR’S STAFF, AND HAVING READ THE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON THE REVERSE SIDE HEREOF, LESSEE(S) HEREBY ACKNOWLEDGE THAT HE/SHE/THEY FULLY UNDERSTAND(S): (a) THAT OUTDOOR RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES HAVE INHERENT RISKS, DANGERS, AND HAZARDS, AND THAT SUCH EXISTS IN MY USE OF THE EQUIPMENT ABOVE DESCRIBED AND MY PARTICIPATION IN WHITE WATER RAFTING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES; (b) THAT MY PARTICIPATION IN SUCH ACTIVITIES AND/OR THE USE OF SUCH EQUIPMENT [*11] MAY RESULT IN INJURY OR ILLNESS, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, BODILY INJURY, DISEASE, STRAINS, FRACTURES, PARTIAL AND OR TOTAL PARALYSIS, DEATH, OR OTHER AILMENTS THAT COULD CAUSE SERIOUS DISABILITY; (c) THAT SAID RISKS AND DANGERS MAY BE CAUSED BY (i) THE NEGLIGENCE OF THE OWNERS, EMPLOYEES, OFFICERS, OR AGENTS OF LESSOR, (ii) THE NEGLIGENCE OF PARTICIPANTS, (iii) THE NEGLIGENCE OF OTHERS, (iv) ACCIDENTS, (v) BREACHES OF CONTRACT, AND (vi) THE FORCES OF NATURE OR OTHER CAUSES; (d) THAT RISKS AND DANGERS MAY ARISE FROM FORESEEABLE OR UNFORESEEABLE CAUSES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, GUIDE DECISION MAKING, INCLUDING THAT A GUIDE MAY MISJUDGE TERRAIN, WEATHER, TRAIL OR RIVER ROUTE LOCATION; WATER LEVEL; FALLING OUT OF OR DROWNING WHILE IN A RAFT, CANOE, OR KAYAK; AND SUCH OTHER RISKS, HAZARDS. AND DANGERS THAT ARE INTEGRAL TO RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES THAT TAKE PLACE IN A WILDERNESS, OUTDOOR OR RECREATIONAL ENVIRONMENT; AND (e) THAT BY MY PARTICIPATION IN THESE ACTIVITIES AND/OR USE OF THE EQUIPMENT ABOVE DESCRIBED, I HEREBY ASSUME ALL RISKS, DANGERS, AND RESPONSIBILITY FOR ANY LOSSES AND/OR DANGERS, WHETHER CAUSED IN WHOLE OR IN PART BY THE NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER CONDUCT OF THE OWNERS, [*12] AGENTS, OR EMPLOYEES OF LESSOR OR ANY OTHER PERSON.

AND FURTHER, ON BEHALF OF MY PERSONAL REPRESENTATIVES, SUCCESSORS, HEIRS, AND ASSIGNS, I DO HEREBY VOLUNTARILY AGREE TO RELEASE, WAIVE, DISCHARGE, HOLD HARMLESS, DEFEND, AND INDEMNIFY LESSOR AND ITS OWNERS, AGENTS, OFFICERS, AND EMPLOYEES FROM ANY AND ALL CLAIMS, ACTIONS, OR LOSSES FOR BODILY INJURY, PROPERTY DAMAGE, WRONGFUL DEATH, LOSS OF SERVICES, OR OTHERWISE WHICH MAY ARISE OUT OF MY USE OF THE EQUIPMENT ABOVE DESCRIBED, OR MY PARTICIPATION IN ANY ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SAID EQUIPMENT. I SPECIFICALLY UNDERSTAND THAT I AM RELEASING, DISCHARGING, AND WAIVING ANY CLAIMS OR ACTIONS THAT I MAY HAVE PRESENTLY OR IN THE FUTURE FOR THE NEGLIGENT ACTS OR OTHER CONDUCT BY THE OWNERS, AGENTS, OFFICERS, OR EMPLOYEES OF LESSOR.

I HAVE READ THE ABOVE WAIVER AND RELEASE, AND, BY SIGNING THIS RENTAL AGREEMENT, AGREE THAT IT IS MY INTENTION TO EXEMPT AND RELIEVE LESSOR AND ITS OWNERS, AGENTS, OFFICERS, AND EMPLOYEES FROM LIABILITY FOR PERSONAL INJURY, PROPERTY DAMAGE, OR WRONGFUL DEATH CAUSED BY NEGLIGENCE OR ANY OTHER CAUSE.

Id.

At the end of the “TERMS AND CONDITIONS” section, at the beginning of the right column, is the following language:

IN WITNESS [*13] WEREOF, and intending to be legally bound hereby, the undersigned Lessee(s) hereby certify that he/she/they have read and understood the terms and conditions of this Rental Agreement, and has/have affixed his/her/their hand(s) and seal(s) hereto on the dated indicated.

Id. Directly underneath this language, and in the column next to the exculpatory clause, multiple lines were provided where Plaintiff and the members of her party signed their names. Id. Plaintiff’s signature is the second to last signature listed on the form. Id.

The second page of the Rental Agreement has two sections. Id. The first section includes the header “SAFETY PRECAUTIONS” and the second section is titled “RECOMMENDATIONS.” Id. Both sections list a number of precautions and recommendations for how white water rafters should conduct themselves while on the river. Id.

The Defendant argues that the Release contained in the Rental Agreement is valid and enforceable. ECF Nos. 19, 20, 26. Plaintiff on the other hand asserts that the Release is unenforceable because its language is not sufficiently conspicuous to alert a party that it serves to release Defendant from liability and that Plaintiff did not actually assent [*14] to the terms of the Rental Agreement. ECF No. 24. To support her contentions, Plaintiff points out that the document was titled “Rental Agreement” and therefore does not provide adequate notice to signors that it is a release of liability. Id. at 7-8. Furthermore, the exculpatory language is placed at the bottom left of the form and not directly above the signature line, is written in small font, and does not appear until paragraph 9 of the form. Id. Plaintiff also argues that no one specifically informed her that she was entering into a contract that would affect her legal rights, and that she was “rushed along” by Defendant’s employees. Id.

The parties agree that this Court must consider Pennsylvania law and apply it in this case. See Lin v. Spring Mountain Adventures, Inc., 2010 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 136090, 2010 WL 5257648, at *3 (E.D. Pa. Dec. 23, 2010). Applying Pennsylvania law, the Pennsylvania Supreme Court explained that:

It is generally accepted that an exculpatory clause is valid where three conditions are met. First, the clause must not contravene public policy. Secondly, the contract must be between persons relating entirely to their own private affairs and thirdly, each party must be a free bargaining agent [*15] to the agreement so that the contract is not one of adhesion. . . . once an exculpatory clause is determined to be valid, it will, nevertheless, still be unenforceable unless the language of the parties is clear that a person is being relieved of liability for his own acts of negligence. In interpreting such clauses we listed as guiding standards that: 1) the contract language must be construed strictly, since exculpatory language is not favored by the law; 2) the contract must state the intention of the parties with the greatest particularity, beyond doubt by express stipulation, and no inference from words of general import can establish the intent of the parties; 3) the language of the contract must be construed, in cases of ambiguity, against the party seeking immunity from liability; and 4) the burden of establishing the immunity is upon the party invoking protection under the clause.

Chepkevich v. Hidden Valley Resort, L.P., 607 Pa. 1, 2 A.3d 1174, 1189 (Pa. 2010) (citations omitted).

Plaintiff primarily relies on three release of liability cases to support her contention that the Release is in this instance unenforceable: Beck-Hummel v. Ski Shawnee, Inc., 2006 PA Super 159, 902 A.2d 1266 (Pa. Super. Ct. 2006); [*16] Chepkevich v. Hidden Valley Resort, L.P., 607 Pa. 1, 2 A.3d 1174 (Pa. 2010), and Lin v. Spring Mountain Adventures, Inc., No. 10-333, 2010 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 136090, 2010 WL 5257648 (E.D. Pa. Dec. 23, 2010). 4

4 Plaintiff does not argue that the release in this instance is facially invalid.

In Beck-Hummel, the plaintiff brought a negligence claim for injuries she received from colliding with a barrier wall while snow tubing at the defendant’s resort. 2006 PA Super 159, 902 A.2d 1266. There, the release was printed on the backside of a lift ticket that the plaintiff’s husband purchased and had given to plaintiff. Id. at 1267, 1270-71. The release contained hard to read and inconspicuous language, it did not require a signature or acknowledgment, and was printed on the portion of the ticket that would be folded out of sight of the user. Id. at 1269, 1273-1274. The record also revealed the lift ticket was not given to the Plaintiff directly by the operator. The Pennsylvania Superior Court held that plaintiff’s assent to the terms of the disclaimer was not clearly established and therefore it could not hold as a matter of law that the release for snow tubing injuries was enforceable. Id. at 1275.

In Chepkevich, plaintiff skier, who had signed a release [*17] prior to skiing, asked a lift operator to stop a lift so that she and her 6-year-old nephew could board the lift. Although the lift operator agreed to do so, when the lift came behind the plaintiff and her nephew, the operator failed to stop the lift. The skier sued the ski resort for negligence for injuries she received as a result of falling from the ski lift. The release in this case was printed on a single page and titled “RELEASE FROM LIABILITY.” 2 A.3d at 1192. The language releasing liability was in the same font as the rest of the release, included the term “negligence”, and “specifically noted that riding the ski lift is a risky activity.” Id. The plaintiff argued that she did not read the exculpatory language nor did anyone orally inform her that she was entering into such an agreement. Id. at 1180-81. The court held that the release was valid, enforceable, and “clearly encompassed the risk at issue . . . [and] clearly spelled out the parties’ intention to release [defendant] from liability for injuries . . . regardless of any negligence on the part of the [defendant].” Id. at 1195. The court therefore upheld the grant of summary judgment in favor of the defendant. Id.

Finally [*18] in Lin, the plaintiff sued for serious injuries sustained from skiing when she lost control and fell into a snow making machine that was not properly padded. The document containing the release provision was titled “EQUIPMENT RENTAL FORM AND RELEASE FROM LIABILITY.” 2010 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 136090, 2010 WL 5257648, at *2. On the front page of the release was a capitalized, blocked section in the center of the page, above the signature line, instructing the reader to “PLEASE READ THE AGREEMENT ON THE BACK OF THIS FORM BEFORE SIGNING. IT RELEASES U.S. FROM CERTAIN LIABILITY.” Id. Directly between the instruction to read the back of the release and the signature line was the following statement: “I, the undersigned, have carefully read and understood the Acceptance of Risk and Liability Release on the back of this paper.” Id. The exculpatory clause was located on the back of the form and stated multiple times that it was a release from liability. 2010 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 136090, [WL] at *2. The court found that even though the plaintiff had not read the release language, that she “was a voluntary signatory to a full-sized contract.” 2010 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 136090, [WL] at *5. The court held that the exculpatory clause was enforceable and granted defendant’s motion for summary judgment. [*19] 2010 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 136090, [WL] at *9.

This case is not analogous to Beck-Hummel, as Plaintiff contends. Unlike Beck-Hummel, Plaintiff “was not a mere recipient of a release printed on a ticket, but was a voluntary signatory to a full-sized contract.” Lin, 2010 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 136090, 2010 WL 5257648, at *5. Plaintiff signed the Rental Agreement herself, and her signature is immediately preceded by instructions guiding her to read the entirety of the form and confirming that she had done so. Moreover, Plaintiff was provided a full-sized contract in which the Release was set forth on its front side, as opposed to a small unreadable ticket that she did not sign and in which the operative language was written on the reverse side.

Moreover, the language of the Release, construed strictly against Defendant, plainly expresses the intention of the parties to release Defendant from liability for future injury. The paragraph mentions “negligence” five (5) times and that it is a release of liability three (3) times. ECF No. 19-5. 5 Specifically, the first sentence of paragraph 9 asks the signer to carefully read the “WAIVER AND RELEASE OF LIABILITY.” Id.

5 In fact, exculpatory clauses may bar suits based on negligence even where the clause does not specifically [*20] mention the word “negligence” at all. Chepkevich, 2 A.3d at 1193. “It strains common sense to suggest that releases that fail to mention the word ‘negligence’ should consistently be interpreted as barring suits based on negligence claims, while a release that clearly states that suits are barred ‘regardless of negligence’ would not bar such suits.” Id.

Part of Plaintiff’s argument is that she was not personally informed by Ohiopyle of the elevated water level prior to her signing the Rental Agreement. However, the language of the Release explicitly warned of the same things that Defendant’s employees cautioned the rest of Plaintiff’s group. Specially, the Release warns of “bodily injury” from “risks and dangers [that] may arise from foreseeable or unforeseeable causes, including . . . water level” and “falling out of . . . a raft.” Id. Furthermore, the clause stated that by signing the agreement, the signor “assume[s] all risks, dangers, and responsibility for any losses and/or dangers.” Id. In fact, the clause even warns of “total paralysis” and “death.” Id. This paragraph goes on to explain that the signor “specifically understand[s] that I am releasing, discharging, and waiving any [*21] claims or actions that I may have presently or in the future for the negligent acts or other conduct by” the Defendant. Id. Furthermore, “it is my intention to exempt and relieve lessor . . . from liability for personal injury . . . caused by negligence.” Id. It is also important to note that prior to her trip to Ohiopyle, Plaintiff admittedly went white water rafting in Arizona where she signed a rental agreement with a release, and was informed that white water rafting could be dangerous and that she could fall out of the raft. Wroblewski Dep. 16:21-17:7; 20:14-21:9. Moreover, in Ohiopyle’s safety briefing, right before Plaintiff boarded the raft, Plaintiff and her group were warned that white water rafting can be dangerous, and it was possible that she could fall out of the raft. Id. 33:6-12.

The fact that the exculpatory language was contained in the bottom half of the first page, not listed until paragraph 9, and not directly above the signature line does not make it unenforceable, either generally or in this case. While the terms and conditions are in a slightly smaller font than the upper half of the form, they are still clearly readable. Moreover, paragraph 9 is the only paragraph [*22] written entirely in capital letters. Taken as a whole, using a strict (but common sense) interpretation, it is clear the form in question releases the Defendant from liability for injuries such as those sustained by Plaintiff, even if due to Defendant’s own negligence. 6

6 Lahey v. Covington, 964 F. Supp. 1440, 1442 (D. Colo. 1996) is factually similar to this case in that there, the defendant failed to personally inform plaintiff of heightened water level when the plaintiff took a white water rafting trip through defendant’s company. The Arkansas Headwater Recreation Area, a white water rafting regulatory group, recommended against any rafting when the water flow measured 4.0 feet high or more (the same cut-off measurement for rafts without guides at Ohiopyle). The defendant also had a company policy to not take people rafting when the water was four feet or higher. On the day in question, the river measured 3.8 feet but, similar to this case, the defendant did not inform the plaintiff that the water level was “high” that day. Plaintiff signed a release of liability agreement prior to the trip and was injured after being tossed into the river. The court held that the exculpatory portion [*23] of the release agreement was valid and granted defendant’s motion for summary judgment on plaintiff’s negligence claim. Id. at 1446.

Plaintiff contends that summary judgment is also improper because whether she knowingly signed the Rental Agreement and assented to its terms is a question of fact for the jury. ECF No. 24. Plaintiff argues that she did not read the Release and that employees of Defendant did not directly warn or advise her as to the conditions of the river or offer her a guided tour, nor did they orally inform her of what the form stated or ask her to read the form, and that they rushed and “hurried [her] along”, and therefore she did not assent to the terms of the agreement. Id.

Plaintiff voluntarily chose to engage in the sport of white water rafting purely for recreational purposes. Plaintiff signed the Release; she was not compelled, as a legal matter, to sign it, but chose to sign it so that she could go on the white water rafting trip with her group. See Tayar v. Camelback Ski Corp., Inc., 616 Pa. 385, 47 A.3d 1190, 1197 (Pa. 2012) (“[R]ecreational sporting activities may be viewed differently in the context of exculpatory agreements, as each party is free to participate, or [*24] not, in the activity, and, therefore, is free to sign, or not, the release form.”); see also Chepkevich, 607 Pa. 1, 2 A.3d 1174 (release enforceable even though plaintiff had not read agreement); Lin, 2010 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 136090, 2010 WL 5257648 (same). There is no evidence that plaintiff sought to negotiate the terms of the Release or asked for additional time to read it, and to the extent she was “compelled” it was a compulsion arising solely from her personal desire to meet up with her group.

Under Pennsylvania law, the failure to read a contract does not nullify the contract’s validity. Standard Venetian Blind Co. v. Am. Empire Ins. Co., 503 Pa. 300, 469 A.2d 563, 566 (Pa. 1983) (“[I]n the absence of proof of fraud, failure to read [the contract] is an unavailing excuse or defense and cannot justify an avoidance, modification or nullification of the contract or any provision thereof.”); see also Arce v. U-Pull-It Auto Parts, Inc., No. 06-5593, 2008 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 10202, 2008 WL 375159, at *5-9 (E.D. Pa. Feb. 11, 2008) (written release found to be enforceable even when the agreement was in English but the plaintiff only read and spoke Spanish, noting that the “[p]laintiff cannot argue that the release language was inconspicuous or somehow hidden from his attention. [*25] . . . Nor did Defendant have an obligation to verify that [p]laintiff had read and fully understood the terms of the document before he signed his name to it.”). 7

7 See also In re Greenfield Estate, 14 Pa. 489, 496 (Pa. 1850) (“[i]f a party, who can read . . . will not read a deed put before him for execution; or if, being unable to read, will not demand to have it read or explained to him, he is guilty of supine negligence, which . . . is not the subject of protection, either in equity or at law.”).

This rule has been applied time and again in the context of recreational activities in which a party signed a pre-injury release of liability. For instance, the Pennsylvania Superior Court affirmed an order granting summary judgment in favor of the owner of a racetrack where the plaintiff had signed an agreement releasing all claims against the racetrack before he was injured. Seaton v. E. Windsor Speedway, Inc., 400 Pa. Super. 134, 582 A.2d 1380 (Pa. Super. Ct. 1990). The Superior Court held that the signed release was enforceable even though plaintiff claimed that he had not read it, did not know that he was signing a release, and did not have time to read the document because of a long line of people behind [*26] him. Id. at 1383 (“His explanation that he did not read it does not, in the absence of fraud or a confidential relationship, extricate him from its operation.”). See also Lin, 2010 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 136090, 2010 WL 5257648, at *6 (“[i]t is a well established rule under Pennsylvania law that failure to read a contract does not relieve a party of their obligation under such contract that they sign, and such parties will be bound by the agreement without regard to whether the terms were read and fully understood.”); Martinez v. Skirmish, U.S.A., Inc., No. 07-5003, 2009 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 51628, 2009 WL 1676144, *7 (E.D. Pa. June 15, 2009) (release enforceable as to negligence for injury to plaintiff during paintball game, noting that plaintiff was accompanied by friends “who could have explained the Waiver & Release to him, if he had asked them to do so. . . . Consequently, [plaintiff's] failure to read that document cannot constitute a defense to the enforceability of the Waiver & Release.”); Schillachi v. Flying Dutchman Motorcycle Club, 751 F. Supp. 1169, 1174-75 (E.D. Pa. 1990) (release that plaintiff signed before being injured while racing all-terrain vehicle was enforceable even though plaintiff failed to read it because “[t]o accept plaintiff’s [*27] argument that there is such a duty [on the part of the defendant] to inform in this case would essentially abrogate the law of Pennsylvania regarding plaintiff’s duty to read.”). 8

8 In Doe v. Cultural Care, Inc., No. 10-11426-DJC, 2011 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 28226, 2011 WL 1048624, at *4-5 (D. Mass. Mar. 17, 2011), the court held that a release signed by plaintiff was enforceable even if the defendant had rushed her. There, the court explained that

“[t]he fact that [plaintiff] did not take the time to read the terms and conditions of the Agreement because she felt hurried by [defendant] does not change the analysis. [Plaintiff] does not dispute that she executed the Agreement or that it contains the Release. She disputes that she agreed to the terms and conditions, that the Release discharges Defendants from liability or bars her claims since she had no knowledge of the Release and was rushed into executing the Agreement based on Defendants’ representations.”

Id.

Similar to the cases discussed above, Plaintiff voluntarily participated in the white water rafting trip. “The signer is under no compulsion, economic or otherwise, to participate, much less to sign the exculpatory agreement, because it does not relate to essential [*28] services, but merely governs a voluntary recreational activity.” Chepkevich, 2 A.3d at 1191. Plaintiff could have requested additional time to read the agreement, or she could have chosen to not sign the Release and not go white water rafting. See Martinez, 2009 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 51628, 2009 WL 1676144, at *7 (argument that plaintiff had no choice but to sign release because he had pre-paid for the paintball activity was unavailing for the reason that it was a recreational activity where participation was voluntary). Holding that Defendant had a duty to orally inform Plaintiff of what she was signing, or holding a release unenforceable because Plaintiff failed to read the contract containing a release of liability she signed because she felt rushed, would turn this rule on its head.

The Court considers, as it must, all of the relevant circumstances set out in the record, Lin, 2010 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 136090, 2010 WL 5257648, at *6, and is unable to agree with Plaintiff that the Rental Agreement constituted (as a matter of law) an insufficient effort on the part of Ohiopyle to inform her of the fact that by signing that Agreement, she was giving up any right she might have to sue for damages arising from injuries caused even by negligence. In five [*29] (5) different places the Release mentions “negligence” and states that is a release of liability in three (3) places. ECF 19-5. Similar to Chepkevich, “[a]lthough the outcome in this case was certainly unfortunate, the risk was not so unexpected, or brought about in so strange a manner, as to justify placing this injury beyond the reach of the plain language of the Release, which specifically noted” that white water rafting is a risky activity in which water levels can increase or decrease and that you can fall out of the raft. Chepkevich, 607 Pa. 1, 2 A.3d 1174, 1194. Furthermore, between her previous white water rafting trip in Arizona and the safety briefing she was admittedly provided by Ohiopyle, Plaintiff was aware that white water rafting was dangerous and that falling out of a raft was an actual danger of the activity. Moreover, Plaintiff’s argument that there is an issue of material fact as to whether she assented to the terms of the agreement because she felt “rushed” by Defendant, is insufficient to deem the agreement unenforceable in light of her duty under Pennsylvania law to read a contract.

The Release, even when construed against Defendant, clearly spelled out the parties’ intention [*30] to release Defendant from liability and encompassed the risk of varying water levels and falling out of the raft. Consequently, the Release meets the enforceability test under Pennsylvania law. Plaintiff brings a claim for negligence. Negligence is explicitly encompassed within the Release, and Defendant’s Motion for Summary Judgment is granted. 9

9 Because the signed Rental Agreement precludes Plaintiff from bringing a claim of negligence against Defendant, the Court need not decide whether the incident at issue in this case was an inherent risk of white water rafting.

IV. Conclusion

For the foregoing reasons, Defendant’s Motion for Summary Judgment is granted. An appropriate Order will issue.

/s/ Mark R. Hornak

Mark R. Hornak

United States District Judge

Dated: August 22, 2013


If you throw a throwbag incorrectly (yes there is now a right way and wrong way) that can be used to sue you. It used to be the correct way was the swimmer got the rope; incorrect way swimmer missed the rope.

Yo! Raft guides, ever been sued? New ASTM standard will now make that possible!

Well meaning, hardworking volunteers have no idea how they are helping to create lawsuits but here is the perfect example.

ASTM F1730 – 96(2014)

Standard Guide for Throwing a Water Rescue Throwbag

Active Standard ASTM F1730 | Developed by Subcommittee: F32.02

Book of Standards Volume:13.02

Here is how this standard is explained.

Significance and Use

3.1 This guide establishes a recommended procedure for a throwing rescue to ensure the safety of all water rescuers who may be involved in rescue techniques at a water rescue emergency.

3.2 This water rescue technique can be utilized from land, boat, or any stable platform.

3.3 All persons who are identified as water rescuers shall meet the requirements of this guide.

3.4 This guide is intended to assist government agencies, state, local, and regional organizations; fire departments; rescue teams and others who are responsible for establishing a minimum performance for personnel who respond to water emergencies.

3.5 The procedure outlined in the document may vary with the number and type of victims, and water conditions.

1. Scope

1.1 This guide covers the recommended procedures for throwing a water rescue throwbag.

1.2 This guide is one in a series of water rescue techniques for the water rescuer.

1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Does this apply to raft guides? I would say yes.

Is a raft guide a “water rescuer” who may be involved in rescue techniques at a water rescue emergency.” If so you have to meet the requirements of this guide.

Do you know the name of a group of people who meet this definition? “…others who are responsible for establishing a minimum performance for personnel….” They are called a jury.

Let’s see how this is a messed up idea.

You were a high school quarterback with a good arm. You can throw a throwbag just like a football with great accuracy.

You are right-handed and standing on shore next to a rock wall. There is not room to throw the throwbag underhanded.

You are on a 12’ raft in the Royal Gorge on the Arkansas River. Does the definition of 3.2, which describes a boat as stable apply to you? Since your boat is not stable should you knot use your throwbag? Are you allowed to throw any way you can, if you are not stable?

Seriously, why is someone writing these things? Can’t they see how broadly this is written and how much damage it will do?

Look, someone is in the river it doesn’t matter if you are throwing the bag backwards, blindfolded standing on one leg in a pink tutu. If you get the rope to the swimmer, that was the correct way!!!

 

What do you think? Leave a comment.

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Really neat assumption of the risk agreement. But will it work? Should it be a release?

Without the word negligence or giving up your right to sue it is not a release.

A friend sent me this assumption of the risk form. You can find it here. It is on the WaterTribe website. It is fun to read and well written. Three long pages of warnings about the risks of boating.

However there is no place to sign. So there is no way to prove that anyone signed the form.

There is also no use of the magic word negligence or language where the party is giving up the right to sue.

The document says you have to sign a release, however searching the site did not turn one up. However it might be a member’s only location on the site. Does the release tie into or relate back to this form. That would provide great assumption of risk proof.

Do Something

However this is nothing wrong with this document. It tells the truth that if you don’t read and pay attention to what it says you can get hurt or die.

Maybe we need more documents that drive home the risk, rather than legally dance around it.

What do you think? Leave a comment.

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Release signed for whitewater rafting also works to stop claim for tripping getting out of raft bus. Tennessee release law broad enough to protect items enumerated in the release

Henderson v. Quest Expeditions, Inc. 174 S.W.3d 730; 2005 Tenn. App. LEXIS 334

Plaintiff: Nathan & Brandy Henderson

Defendant: Quest Expeditions, Inc.

Plaintiff Claims: negligence

Defendant Defenses: Release

Holding: for the defendant based on the release

This Tennessee case is quite interesting. The plaintiff was a first-time whitewater rafter. After the raft trip ended, he boarded the bus to ride back to the office. For some reason, not in the record, he was forced to get out of the first bus and board another bus. While disembarking from the first bus he slipped and fell sustaining injuries.

He filed this suit which was dismissed by the trial court based on a Motion for Summary Judgment. The plaintiff appealed arguing the release was barred by public policy and void because it was too excessive in its scope.

Summary of the case

The court looked at all arguments raised by the plaintiff on appeal. Some that I have reviewed and written about before and some new and “novel” theories.

The first issue was the plaintiff stated the release should be thrown out because the plaintiff “had no previous white-water rafting experience, and was given a pre-printed document to sign prior to the excursion which was not reviewed with him by an employee of defendant.”

Can you imagine the pile up in an office if you had to go over each release with each patron who came to purchase a trip from you?

The plaintiff also argued that “he was not advised whether there were any other rafting companies who would allow him to go rafting without having to sign a waiver, or whether he could pay additional money to not have to sign the waiver.”

This is a rare argument, but it has been used to defeat releases in a few cases. See Atkins v. Swimwest Family Fitness Center, 2005 WI 4; 2005 Wisc. LEXIS 2.

The next argument was the release was void because it violated public policy. The court first looked at whether releases were valid in Tennessee. The Tennessee Supreme Court upheld releases.

It is well settled in this State that parties may contract that one shall not be liable for his negligence to another but that such other shall assume the risk incident to such negligence. . . . Further, it is not necessary that the word ‘negligence’ appear in the exculpatory clause and the public policy of Tennessee favors freedom to contract against liability for negligence.

Of note is the statement by the court that the word negligence does not need to appear in the release. The Tennessee Supreme Court adopted the requirements of Tunkl v. Regents of University of California, 60 Cal. 2d 92, 383 P.2d 441, 32 Cal. Rptr. 33 (Ca. 1963) to determine if an activity should not be covered by a release.

(a.) It concerns a business of a type generally thought suitable for public regulation.

(b.) The party seeking exculpation is engaged in performing a service of great importance to the public, which is often a matter of practical necessity for some members of the public.

(c.) The party holds himself out as willing to perform this service for any member of the public who seeks it, or at least for any member coming within certain established standards.

(d.) As a result of the essential nature of the service, in the economic setting of the transaction, the party invoking exculpation possesses a decisive advantage of bargaining strength against any member of the public who seeks his services.

(e.) In exercising a superior bargaining power the party confronts the public with a standardized adhesion contract of exculpation, and makes no provision whereby a purchaser may pay additional reasonable fees and obtain protection against negligence.

(f.) Finally, as a result of the transaction, the person or property of the purchaser is placed under the control of the seller, subject to the risk of carelessness by the seller or his agents.

The court then looked at the factors as explained by the Tennessee Supreme Court. Generally, professionals are not allowed to receive a release for their negligence, where tradesmen could.

…not all of the factors had to be present in order to invalidate an exculpatory agreement, but generally, the factors were limited to circumstances involving “a contract with a profession, as opposed to ‘tradesmen in the marketplace’

Whitewater rafting is not a professional trade and as such the defendant could use a release. Whitewater rafting “is not a service of “great importance to the public, which is often a matter of practical necessity for some members of the public.” There is no necessity that one goes whitewater rafting.

The plaintiff then argued that because whitewater rafting was regulated it was of a public interest. Tennessee’s legislature passed 2005 Tenn. Pub. Acts 169 which regulated whitewater rafting in the state. However, the statute specifically allowed the use of releases. T.C.A. 70-7-205. Written waivers, exculpatory agreements and releases.

The final argument was the injury received by the plaintiff, slipping exiting a bus, which not an inherent risk of whitewater rafting and thus of outside the scope of the release. The plaintiff described the busses of the defendant in his complaint as: “…dilapidated school buses.” (Seems like a normal rafting company to me……

However, the court rejected that argument on two grounds. The first was the release was written broadly and covered all negligent acts of the defendant. The second was the release mentioned bus or van transportation. “Moreover, the Contract specifically mentions that plaintiffs are being furnished and participating in white-water rafting and “bus or van transportation” provided by the defendant.”

The court concluded:

The Contract under consideration is clear and unambiguous, and states that plaintiffs agreed to release defendant from any and all liability, including defendant’s own negligence. Moreover, the Contract specifically mentions that plaintiffs are being furnished and participating in white water rafting and “bus or van transportation” provided by the defendant. The Contract states that plaintiffs realize that they could be injured due to dangers from the rafting as well as the use of white water equipment, forces of nature, or even due to the negligence of defendant’s employees and other rafters. The Con-tract states that defendant is being relieved of any liability caused by its own negligence in no less than four places, the last of which is in bold print above the signature line. This Contract is plain, and enforceable as written.

So Now What?

First never run the risk of having a release thrown out because it does not include the magic word negligence. Even though the Supreme Court may not require it today, your lawsuit tomorrow may set precedence on that issue. It is easy to put in and should be in every release.

To defeat the argument that you should be able to bargain your way out of the release or that whether there are any other companies offering trips without requiring a release to be signed you should put language in your release advising your clients about those issues. A release that states that the person is signing the release voluntarily and undertaking the activity voluntarily and is free to go, as in this case, whitewater rafting with someone else can eliminate this argument in most states.

To engage or purchase a trip with you without signing a release have your insurance company send you a letter stating how much your insurance would cost if a release is not signed. Then if asked you can show a patron the letter to support charging the normal price plus the increase in your insurance premium to go on a trip without signing a release. A $10,095.00 raft trip is probably not worth it for a day on the water.

If anyone asks if they can go rafting and not sign a release, the easiest way to respond is to send them to a competitor.

Whether or not transportation will be covered by a release will be different for each state. In some states if the transportation is incidental to the activity it may be covered. Here the release was written broadly, and releases are interpreted broadly to allow the scope of the release to cover transportation.

In some states, however, transportation is an activity that cannot be released because it is protected by public policy.

 

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Henderson v. Quest Expeditions, Inc. 174 S.W.3d 730; 2005 Tenn. App. LEXIS 334

Henderson v. Quest Expeditions, Inc. 174 S.W.3d 730; 2005 Tenn. App. LEXIS 334

Nathan & Brandy Henderson v. Quest Expeditions, Inc.

No. E2004-02585-COA-R3-CV

COURT OF APPEALS OF TENNESSEE, AT KNOXVILLE

174 S.W.3d 730; 2005 Tenn. App. LEXIS 334

April 4, 2005, Session

June 8, 2005, Filed

SUBSEQUENT HISTORY: Appeal denied by Henderson v. Quest Expeditions, Inc., 2005 Tenn. LEXIS 962 (Tenn., Oct. 24, 2005)

PRIOR HISTORY: [**1] Tenn. R. App. P.3 Appeal as of Right; Judgment of the Circuit Court Affirmed. Direct Appeal from the Circuit Court for Polk County. No. CV-03-130. Hon. John B. Hagler, Circuit Judge.

DISPOSITION: Judgment of the Circuit Court Affirmed.

COUNSEL: H. Franklin Chancey, Cleveland, Tennessee, for appellants.

Gary A. Cooper, Chattanooga, Tennessee, for appellee.

JUDGES: HERSCHEL PICKENS FRANKS, P.J., delivered the opinion of the court, in which CHARLES D. SUSANO, JR., J., and D. MICHAEL SWINEY, J., joined.

OPINION BY: HERSCHEL PICKENS FRANKS

OPINION

[*731] In this action for personal injuries allegedly due to defendant’s negligence, the Trial Court granted defendant summary judgment on the grounds that plaintiffs had executed a Waiver and Release of Liability which was required by defendant prior to plaintiffs’ participation in white water rafting. Plaintiffs have appealed, insisting the Release is void as against the public policy of this State. We affirm.

Plaintiffs’ Complaint alleged that Henderson was injured while on a white water rafting expedition operated by defendant. The Complaint alleged that defendant “ferries rafters to and from the Ocoee River by means of a series of dilapidated school buses.”, and that [**2] after Henderson had completed his rafting trip, he and other rafters were put on a bus, and then told to get on another bus, and when disembarking from the first bus he slipped and fell, sustaining severe personal injuries. Plaintiffs further alleged that defendant’s negligence was the proximate cause of his injuries.

Defendant in its Answer admitted that Henderson had participated in a rafting trip sponsored by defendant, and among its defenses raised was waiver, because plaintiff had signed a “Waiver and Release of Liability”, which defendant attached to its Answer.

In their Answers to Requests for Admissions, plaintiffs admitted that the waiver in question had been signed by Henderson. Defendant then filed a Motion for Summary Judgment, which plaintiffs opposed and Henderson filed his Affidavit which stated that Henderson had no previous white-water rafting experience, and was given a pre-printed document to sign prior to the excursion which was not reviewed with him by an employee of defendant. He further stated that he was not advised whether there were any other rafting companies who would allow him to go rafting without having to sign a waiver, or whether he could pay additional [**3] money to not have to sign the waiver.

The Trial Court determined that the waiver in this case did not affect the public interest, and thus the waiver was not void as against public policy. The court noted that Olson v. Molzen, 558 S.W.2d 429 (Tenn. 1977) did not apply to this situation and he was guided by the rule adopted in California, which states that “exculpatory agreements in the recreational sports context do not implicate the public interest.” Citing Allan v. Snow Summit, Inc., 51 Cal. App. 4th 1358, 59 Cal.Rptr.2d 813, 823 (Ca. App. 1996).

Plaintiffs on appeal insist the Waiver is void against public policy, and in the alternative, that the Waiver was void on the grounds it was too excessive in scope.

Plaintiffs concede that if the Waiver is enforceable then this action is barred, but argue the waiver violates the public policy of this State.

[*732] As our Supreme Court has explained:

[HN1] It is well settled in this State that parties may contract that one shall not be liable for his negligence to another but that such other shall assume the risk incident to such negligence. . . . Further, it is not necessary that the word ‘negligence’ appear [**4] in the exculpatory clause and the public policy of Tennessee favors freedom to contract against liability for negligence.

Empress Health and Beauty Spa, Inc. v. Turner, 503 S.W.2d 188 (Tenn. 1973).

An exception to this rule was recognized by the Supreme Court in Olson v. Molzen, wherein the Court held that certain relationships required greater responsibility which would render such a release “obnoxious”. Olson, at p. 430. The Court adopted the opinion of the California Supreme Court in Tunkl v. Regents of University of California, 60 Cal. 2d 92, 383 P.2d 441, 32 Cal. Rptr. 33 (Ca. 1963), which held that where the public interest would be affected by an exculpatory provision, such provision could be held invalid. Olson, at p. 431.

[HN2] Our Supreme Court adopted the six criteria set forth in Tunkl as useful in determining when an exculpatory provision should be held invalid as contrary to public policy. See Olson. These criteria are:

(a.) It concerns a business of a type generally thought suitable for public regulation.

(b.) The party seeking exculpation is engaged in performing a service of great importance to [**5] the public, which is often a matter of practical necessity for some members of the public.

(c.) The party holds himself out as willing to perform this service for any member of the public who seeks it, or at least for any member coming within certain established standards.

(d.) As a result of the essential nature of the service, in the economic setting of the transaction, the party invoking exculpation possesses a decisive advantage of bargaining strength against any member of the public who seeks his services.

(e.) In exercising a superior bargaining power the party confronts the public with a standardized adhesion contract of exculpation, and makes no provision whereby a purchaser may pay additional reasonable fees and obtain protection against negligence.

(f.) Finally, as a result of the transaction, the person or property of the purchaser is placed under the control of the seller, subject to the risk of carelessness by the seller or his agents.

Olson, at p. 431.

In Olson, the Supreme Court invalidated a contract between a doctor and patient which attempted to release the doctor from liability for his negligence in the performance of medical [**6] services. Also see Carey v. Merritt, 148 S.W.3d 912 (Tenn. Ct. App. 2004) and Russell v. Bray, 116 S.W.3d 1 (Tenn. Ct. App. 2003). In Russell, this Court refused to enforce an exculpatory contract between home buyers and the home inspectors who were hired by the buyers, because the Court found that the home inspectors were professionals whose services affected the public interest, and thus the contracts were offensive to public policy, based on the factors enumerated in Olson. In Carey, this Court made clear that [HN3] not all of the factors had to be present in order to invalidate an exculpatory agreement, but generally, the factors were limited to circumstances involving “a contract with a profession, as opposed to ‘tradesmen in the marketplace’.” Carey, at p. 916; cf. Parton v. Mark Pirtle Oldsmobile-Cadillac-Isuzu, Inc., 730 S.W.2d 634 [*733] (Tenn. Ct. App. 1987) (auto repair shop is not “professional” as would qualify it as service affecting public interest in order to invalidate exculpatory contract).

This case is factually different from Olson, Carey, and Parton because the white-water rafting service offered [**7] by defendant is not a “professional” trade, which affects the public interest. As discussed in factor number two quoted above, this is not a service of “great importance to the public, which is often a matter of practical necessity for some members of the public.” See Olson. There is no necessity that one go white-water rafting. In fact, [HN4] many jurisdictions have recognized that such recreational sporting activities are not activities of an essential nature which would render exculpatory clauses contrary to the public interest. See Seigneur v. National Fitness Institute, Inc., 132 Md. App. 271, 752 A.2d 631 (Md. Ct. Spec. App. 2000) (health club services not essential for purposes of holding exculpatory clause unenforceable as offensive to public interest); Allan v. Snow Summit, Inc., 51 Cal. App. 4th 1358, 59 Cal.Rptr.2d 813 (Cal. Ct. App. 1996) (“voluntary participation in recreational and sports activities [skiing] does not implicate the public interest”); Schutkowski v. Carey, 725 P.2d 1057 (Wyo. 1986) (sky diving and other private recreational businesses generally do not involve services which are necessary to the public such [**8] that exculpatory contract would be invalidated).

Plaintiffs argue that the Release in this case does affect the public interest because the business involved, i.e. commercial white-water rafting, is subject to regulation. While this is true, the presence of this factor does not render this Release offensive to the public interest. In fact, [HN5] recent legislation passed by the Tennessee Legislature “recognizes that the State has a legitimate interest in maintaining the economic viability of commercial white water rafting operations” because the State and its citizens benefit thereby. 2005 Tenn. Pub. Acts 169. This act states the legislative intent is to “encourage white water rafting by discouraging claims based on injury, death or damages resulting from risks inherent in white water rafting.” Id. Thus, the Tennessee legislature has evidenced that the public policy of this State is that commercial white water rafting companies be protected from claims for injuries to patrons.

Accordingly we affirm the Trial Court’s determination that the exculpatory contract in this case does not affect the public interest such that it should be invalidated pursuant to the Olson criteria.

Finally, [**9] appellants argue that the Release in this case should not operate as a bar to their claims because the injury suffered by Henderson was not within the “inherent risks” of the sport of white water rafting, and thus was not within the contemplation of the parties when the release was signed.

In the cases relied on by the plaintiffs regarding the scope of exculpatory provisions in the context of a sport, there are no provisions in those agreements which purport to release the defendant from its own negligence. For example, in Johnson v. Thruway Speedways, Inc., 63 A.D.2d 204, 407 N.Y.S.2d 81 (N.Y. App. Div. 1978), the Court refused to uphold a grant of summary judgment based on a release signed by the plaintiff prior to the sporting event. The Court stated that language of the release (which was not quoted in the opinion) “could lead to the conclusion that it only applied to injuries sustained by a spectator which were associated with the risks inherent in the activity of automobile racing”. The plaintiff in that case was injured when he was hit by a maintenance vehicle not involved in the race. Id. at 205. Thus, the Court [*734] held that this created a triable issue of fact [**10] as to whether the incident was of the type contemplated by the parties when the release was signed. Id.

Similarly, in the case of Larsen v. Vic Tanny International, 130 Ill. App. 3d 574, 474 N.E.2d 729, 85 Ill. Dec. 769 (Ill. App. Ct. 1984), the plaintiff was injured when he inhaled dangerous vapors created by the negligent mixing of cleaning compounds by the defendant health club’s employee. Plaintiff had signed a membership contract which contained exculpatory language regarding plaintiff’s use of the facilities (but did not mention any negligence by defendant). Id. The Court stated this type of injury was arguably not foreseeable to plaintiff when he signed the release, and thus a fact question existed regarding the parties’ intent behind the exculpation clause, which precluded summary judgment. Id. 1

1 The Court noted the result would have been different if plaintiff’s injuries stemmed from a slip and fall in an area adjacent to a swimming pool, citing its previous decision in Owen v. Vic Tanny Enterprises, 48 Ill. App. 2d 344, 199 N.E.2d 280 (Ill. App. Ct. 1964).

[**11] In another case where “negligence” is included in the release, Sweat v. Big Time Auto Racing, Inc., 117 Cal. App. 4th 1301, 12 Cal.Rptr. 3d 678 (Cal. Ct. App. 2004), the plaintiff was injured when the pit-area bleachers collapsed. Plaintiff had signed a release before entering the pit area, which stated that he released the defendant from all liability “whether caused by the negligence of the releasees or otherwise while the undersigned is in or upon the restricted area and/or . . . observing . . . the event.” Id. at 680. The Court found that the release was ambiguous due to the “and/or” language used, and thus relied on extrinsic evidence in interpreting the release, such as the fact that anyone could enter the pit area without signing the release once the race was over. The Court concluded that the release was only intended to apply to the risks inherent in being in close proximity to a race, and was not intended to cover the type of incident which occurred when the bleachers collapsed due to defective construction/maintenance. Id.

[HN6] The majority view from sister states is that an exculpatory provision which specifically and expressly releases a defendant from [**12] its own negligence will be upheld, without regard to whether the injury sustained is one typically thought to be “inherent in the sport”. In fact, there seems to be a split of authority among the states regarding whether the word “negligence” is even required to be present in the exculpation clause for the provision to be construed as releasing the defendant from its own negligence. Cases from Connecticut, for example, have held that in order for an exculpatory provision to be construed as releasing a defendant from its own negligence, the provision must expressly mention negligence . The cases are equally clear, however, that if the provision does expressly release the defendant from its own negligence, then it will be upheld as written. See Hyson v. White Water Mtn. Resorts, 265 Conn. 636, 829 A.2d 827 (Conn. 2003) (snowtubing); Brown v. Sol, 2004 Conn. Super. LEXIS 2430, 2004 WL 2165638 (Conn. Super. Ct. Aug. 31, 2004) (racing school); DiMaggio v. LaBreque, 2003 Conn. Super. LEXIS 2823, 2003 WL 22480968 (Conn. Super. Ct. Oct. 9, 2003) (parachuting).

[HN7] Most jurisdictions, including Tennessee, have held that if the exculpation contract sufficiently demonstrates the parties’ intent to eliminate [**13] liability for negligence, the absence of the word “negligence” is not fatal. See Krazek v. Mountain River Tours, Inc., 884 F.2d 163 (4th Cir. 1989) (white water rafting); Saenz v. Whitewater Voyages, Inc., 226 Cal. App. 3d 758, 276 Cal.Rptr. 672 (Cal. Ct. App. 1991) (white water rafting); Heil Valley Ranch, Inc. v. Simkin, 784 P.2d 781 (Colo. 1989) (horseback [*735] riding); Seigneur v. National Fitness Institute, Inc., 132 Md. App. 271, 752 A.2d 631 (Md. Ct. Spec. App. 2000) (health club); Petry v. Cosmopolitan Spa Intern., Inc., 641 S.W.2d 202 (Tenn. Ct. App. 1982) (health club); Murphy v. North American River Runners, Inc., 186 W. Va. 310, 412 S.E.2d 504 (W. Va. 1991) (white water rafting); Schutkowski v. Carey, 725 P.2d 1057 (Wyo. 1986) (skydiving). In these cases, the fact that the injury occurred during an activity that was not foreseeable or not associated with a risk “inherent in the sport” did not matter. See, e.g., Benedek (health club member injured when adjusting a television set above exercise machines which fell); Murphy (white water rafter injured [**14] when her raft tried to engage in rescue of another raft), and Petry (patron of health club injured when exercise machine she was sitting on collapsed).

In this case, the Release in question does specifically and expressly release defendant from any liability for its negligence or that of any employees, owners, agents, etc. In the matter of contract interpretation, this Court has previously explained:

[HN8] The cardinal rule in the construction of contracts is to ascertain the intent of the parties. West v. Laminite Plastics Mfg. Co., 674 S.W.2d 310 (Tenn. App. 1984). If the contract is plain and unambiguous, the meaning thereof is a question of law, and it is the Court’s function to interpret the contract as written according to its plain terms. Petty v. Sloan, 197 Tenn. 630, 277 S.W.2d 355 (1955). The language used in a contract must be taken and understood in its plain, ordinary, and popular sense. Bob Pearsall Motors, Inc. v. Regal Chrysler-Plymouth, Inc., 521 S.W.2d 578 (Tenn. 1975). In construing contracts, the words expressing the parties’ intentions should be given the usual, natural, and ordinary meaning. Ballard v. North American Life & Cas. Co., 667 S.W.2d 79 (Tenn. App. 1983). [**15] If the language of a written instrument is unambiguous, the Court must interpret it as written rather than according to the unexpressed intention of one of the parties. Sutton v. First Nat. Bank of Crossville, 620 S.W.2d 526 (Tenn. App. 1981). Courts cannot make contracts for parties but can only enforce the contract which the parties themselves have made. McKee v. Continental Ins. Co., 191 Tenn. 413, 234 S.W.2d 830, 22 A.L.R.2d 980 (1951).

Bradson Mercantile, Inc. v. Crabtree, 1 S.W.3d 648, 652 (Tenn. Ct. App. 1999).

The Contract under consideration is clear and unambiguous, and states that plaintiffs agreed to release defendant from any and all liability, including defendant’s own negligence. Moreover, the Contract specifically mentions that plaintiffs are being furnished and participating in white water rafting and “bus or van transportation” provided by the defendant. The Contract states that plaintiffs realize that they could be injured due to dangers from the rafting as well as the use of white water equipment, forces of nature, or even due to the negligence of defendant’s employees and other rafters. The Contract states [**16] that defendant is being relieved of any liability caused by its own negligence in no less than four places, the last of which is in bold print above the signature line. This Contract is plain, and enforceable as written. We conclude the Trial Court properly granted summary judgment to defendant on plaintiffs’ negligence claims.

The Trial Court’s Judgment is affirmed, and the cost of the appeal is assessed to plaintiffs Nathan and Brandy Henderson.

HERSCHEL PICKENS FRANKS, P.J.

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Liability for Activities Whitewater Rafting Professionals

Tennessee Whitewater Rafting Statute

TENNESSEE CODE ANNOTATED

Title 70           Wildlife Resources

Chapter 7      Liability for Activities

Part 2  Whitewater Rafting Professionals

GO TO THE TENNESSEE ANNOTATED STATUTES ARCHIVE DIRECTORY

Tenn. Code Ann. § 70-7-204         (2013)

70-7-201. Part definitions.

As used in this part, unless the context otherwise requires:

(1) “Engages in whitewater activity” means whitewater rafting;

(2) “Inherent risks of whitewater activities” means those dangers or conditions that are an integral part of whitewater activities, including, but not limited to:

(A) Water;

(B) Rocks and obstructions;

(C) Cold water and weather; and

(D) The potential of a participant to act in a negligent manner that may contribute to injury to the participant or other, such as failing to follow instructions or not acting within the participant’s ability;

(3) “Participant” means any person who engages in a whitewater activity;

(4) “Whitewater” means rapidly moving water;

(5) “Whitewater activity” means navigation on rapidly moving water in a watercraft; and

(6) “Whitewater professional” means a person, corporation, LLC, partnership, natural person or any other en-tity engaged for compensation in whitewater activity.

HISTORY: Acts 2012, ch. 862, § 1.

NOTES: Compiler’s Notes.

For the Preamble to the act concerning the limitation of liability of those involved in whitewater activities, please refer to Acts 2012, ch. 862.

Former part 2, §§ 70-7-201 — 70-7-204 (Acts 2004, ch. 952, § 1), concerning white water rafting, was repealed ef-fective May 17, 2005, by Acts 2005, ch. 169, § 1, which also enacted present part 2, §§ 70-7-201 — 70-7-207, in its place.

Former Part 2, §§ 70-7-201 — 70-7-208 (Acts 2005, ch. 169, § 1), concerning the Tennessee White Water Rafting Responsibility Act, was repealed by Acts 2005, ch. 169, § 2, as amended by Acts 2007, ch. 85, § 1, effective July 1, 2010.

Effective Dates.

Acts 2012, ch. 862, § 2. May 1, 2012.

70-7-202. Limitations on liability of whitewater professional.

Except as provided in § 70-7-203:

(1) A whitewater professional shall not be liable for an injury to or the death of a participant resulting from the inherent risks of whitewater activities; and

(2) No participant or participant’s representative shall make any claim against, maintain an action against, or re-cover from a whitewater professional, or any other participant for injury, loss, damages, or death of the participant resulting from any of the inherent risks of whitewater activities.

HISTORY: Acts 2012, ch. 862, § 1.

NOTES: Compiler’s Notes.

For the Preamble to the act concerning the limitation of liability of those involved in whitewater activities, please refer to Acts 2012, ch. 862.

Former part 2, §§ 70-7-201 — 70-7-204 (Acts 2004, ch. 952, § 1), concerning white water rafting, was repealed ef-fective May 17, 2005, by Acts 2005, ch. 169, § 1, which also enacted present part 2, §§ 70-7-201 — 70-7-207, in its place.

Former Part 2, §§ 70-7-201 — 70-7-208 (Acts 2005, ch. 169, § 1), concerning the Tennessee White Water Rafting Responsibility Act, was repealed by Acts 2005, ch. 169, § 2, as amended by Acts 2007, ch. 85, § 1, effective July 1, 2010.

Effective Dates.

Acts 2012, ch. 862, § 2. May 1, 2012.

Section to Section References.

This section is referred to in § 70-7-203.

70-7-203. When liability of whitewater professional imposed.

Nothing in § 70-7-202 shall be construed to prevent or limit the liability of a whitewater professional, or any other person if the whitewater professional:

(1) Provided the equipment and knew or should have known that the equipment was faulty, and the equipment was faulty to the extent that it caused the injury;

(2) Owns, leases, rents, or otherwise is in the lawful possession and control of the land or facilities upon which the participant sustained injuries because of a dangerous latent condition that was known to the whitewater professional, or person and for which warning signs have not been conspicuously posted;

(3) Commits an act or omission that constitutes gross negligence or willful or wanton disregard for the safety of the participant, and the act or omission caused the injury; or

(4) Intentionally injures the participant.

HISTORY: Acts 2012, ch. 862, § 1.

NOTES: Compiler’s Notes.

For the Preamble to the act concerning the limitation of liability of those involved in whitewater activities, please refer to Acts 2012, ch. 862.

Former part 2, §§ 70-7-201 — 70-7-204 (Acts 2004, ch. 952, § 1), concerning white water rafting, was repealed ef-fective May 17, 2005, by Acts 2005, ch. 169, § 1, which also enacted present part 2, §§ 70-7-201 — 70-7-207, in its place.

Former Part 2, §§ 70-7-201 — 70-7-208 (Acts 2005, ch. 169, § 1), concerning the Tennessee White Water Rafting Responsibility Act, was repealed by Acts 2005, ch. 169, § 2, as amended by Acts 2007, ch. 85, § 1, effective July 1, 2010.

Effective Dates.

Acts 2012, ch. 862, § 2. May 1, 2012.

Section to Section References.

This section is referred to in § 70-7-202.

70-7-204. Warning notice.

(a) Every whitewater professional shall either post and maintain signs that contain the warning notice prescribed in subsection (d) or give the warning in writing to participants. The signs shall be placed in clearly visible locations on or near places where the whitewater professional conducts whitewater activities, if the places are owned, managed, or controlled by the professional.

(b) The warning notice specified in subsection (d) shall appear on the sign in black letters, with each letter to be a minimum of one inch (1”) in height.

(c) Every written contract entered into by a whitewater professional for the purpose of providing professional services, instruction, or the rental of equipment to a participant, whether or not the contract involves activities on or off the location or site of the whitewater professional’s business, shall contain in clearly readable print the warning notice specified in subsection (d).

(d) The signs and contracts described in subsection (a) shall contain the following warning notice:

WARNING

Pursuant to Tenn. Code Annotated title 70, chapter 7, part 2, a whitewater professional is not liable for an injury to or the death of a participant in whitewater activities resulting from the inherent risks of whitewater activities.

HISTORY: Acts 2012, ch. 862, § 1.

NOTES: Compiler’s Notes.

For the Preamble to the act concerning the limitation of liability of those involved in whitewater activities, please refer to Acts 2012, ch. 862.

Former part 2, §§ 70-7-201 — 70-7-204 (Acts 2004, ch. 952, § 1), concerning white water rafting, was repealed effective May 17, 2005, by Acts 2005, ch. 169, § 1, which also enacted present part 2, §§ 70-7-201 — 70-7-207, in its place.

Former Part 2, §§ 70-7-201 — 70-7-208 (Acts 2005, ch. 169, § 1), concerning the Tennessee White Water Rafting Responsibility Act, was repealed by Acts 2005, ch. 169, § 2, as amended by Acts 2007, ch. 85, § 1, effective July 1, 2010.

Effective Dates.

Acts 2012, ch. 862, § 2. May 1, 2012.

70-7-205. Written waivers, exculpatory agreements and releases.

Nothing in this part shall modify, constrict or prohibit the use of written waivers, exculpatory agreements or releases. This part is intended to provide additional limitations of liability for whitewater professionals, whether or not such agreements are used.

HISTORY: Acts 2012, ch. 862, § 1.

NOTES: Compiler’s Notes.

For the Preamble to the act concerning the limitation of liability of those involved in whitewater activities, please refer to Acts 2012, ch. 862.

Former part 2, §§ 70-7-201 — 70-7-204 (Acts 2004, ch. 952, § 1), concerning white water rafting, was repealed ef-fective May 17, 2005, by Acts 2005, ch. 169, § 1, which also enacted present part 2, §§ 70-7-201 — 70-7-207, in its place.

Former Part 2, §§ 70-7-201 — 70-7-208 (Acts 2005, ch. 169, § 1), concerning the Tennessee White Water Rafting Responsibility Act, was repealed by Acts 2005, ch. 169, § 2, as amended by Acts 2007, ch. 85, § 1, effective July 1, 2010.

Effective Dates.

Acts 2012, ch. 862, § 2. May 1, 2012.

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Bill before congress to open the Yellowstone River and Grand Teton National Parks to paddling has an interesting side

The bill is sponsored by, let’s say, a very non environmental supporter in Congress. The bill is part of several other bills which are not so innocuous and the bill opens vast areas to paddling that the NPS will not be able to control.

You can find the bill here:

113th CONGRESS

1st Session

H. R. 3492

IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

November 14, 2013

Mrs. Lummis (for herself and Mr. Bishop of Utah) introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on Natural Resources

A BILL

To provide for the use of hand-propelled vessels in Yellowstone National Park, Grand Teton National Park, and the National Elk Refuge, and for other purposes.

1.

Short Title

This Act may be cited as the ” River Paddling Protection Act “.

2.

Regulations Superseded

(a)

In general

The following regulations shall have no force or effect with regard to hand-propelled vessels and the Secretary of the Interior may not issue substantially similar regulations that apply to hand-propelled vessels:

(1)

Section 7.13(d)(4)(ii) of title 36, Code of Federal Regulations, regarding vessels on streams and rivers in Yellowstone National Park.

(2)

Section 7.22(e)(3) of title 36, Code of Federal Regulations, regarding vessels on lakes and rivers in Grand Teton National Park.

(b)

Wildlife-Dependent recreational use

Notwithstanding section 25.21(a) of title 50, Code of Federal Regulations, regarding National Elk Refuge, the use of hand-propelled vessels on rivers and streams in the National Elk Refuge shall be considered a “wildlife-dependent recreational use” as that term is defined in section 5(2) of Public Law 89–669 ( 16 U.S.C. 668ee(2) ).

On the surface it looks great. We can paddle on a couple of rivers that have been closed forever. However, does it open up too much?  It does not stop on the Yellowstone River but all rivers in Yellowstone National park. The same with Grand Teton National Park, everything will be fair paddling game.

Honestly, I don’t know if that is good, great or bad.  You need to read and investigate for yourself.

Here are some comments: Protection of parks requires self restraint and Lummis Boating Legislation for Yellowstone and Grand Teton Parks Misguided.

Do Something

Read, educate yourself and get involved.

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Copyright 2014 Recreation Law (720) Edit Law

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River Management Law Conference Kicks off Week of Education, Training and Networking

RMS 4-C logoLegislative and Environmental Experts will Offer Management Tools and Blueprints

The River Management Society (RMS) announces its biennial education and training symposium, Managing Rivers in Changing Climes: Training Tomorrow’s River Professionals April 15-18, 2014 and its first time partnership with CLE International, producer of River Management Law an education conference April 14th. They will take place at the Renaissance Denver Hotel, Denver, Colorado.

Legal experts at the stand-alone Management Law Conference April 14th, led by Program Chair Lori Potter (Kaplan, Kirsch & Rockwell) will address important river protection issues and the types of river use that frame the challenges and opportunities facing communities throughout the West.  “We are excited to partner with CLE for extensive training experience,” notes River Management Society Executive Director Risa Shimoda.  “The future of our rivers will be prescribed by actions of those who own, use and manage them and RMS appreciates the opportunity to dig into the complexity of river management via this esteemed team of presenters.”

”To complement the CLE conference RMS’ Legal and Legislative track will review legislative and administrative water protection

Wild and Scenic Red River in Kentucky's Clifty...

Wild and Scenic Red River in Kentucky’s Clifty Wilderness, within the Red River Gorge. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

tools by representatives of federal, state and environmental organizations,” continues Shimoda. “Veterans of river-related legal matters will discuss issues related to water rights, appropriation and conservation.” 

RMS will offer the first public workshop on the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Form 80, and a ‘FERC 101’ overview of the hydropower licensing process.  Registrants can learn how to write National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) assessments and comment on Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) more effectively, and conduct Wild and Scenic Rivers Section 7 determinations. They will hear about successes and plans for sustainability from emerging watershed partnership groups, and about flood prevention, mitigation and recovery from municipal leaders such as keynote Mayor Karl Dean from Nashville, TN.   Representatives from private, state and federal organizations will offer tips regarding how to find funding for river projects. 

For details on the CLE Conference, visit http://www.cle.com.  To view CLE conference information as well as the Legal and Legislative and other tracks Managing Rivers in Changing Climes: Training Tomorrow’s River Professionals visit http://www.river-management.org.

The River Management Society (RMS) is a national non-profit 501 (c) 3 organization dedicated to supporting professionals who study, manage and protect North America’s Rivers. RMS maintains the only comprehensive resource for packing human waste out from rivers; a growing library of ‘handy’ hydropower license summaries; Prepare to Launch! Guidelines for Designing and Building Launches for Carry-in Watercraft and a Career Center featuring a live feed of river-related professional opportunities.

For more information, contact Risa Shimoda, +1 301 502 6548, rms@river-management.org.

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River Management Society 2014 Conference: Managing Rivers in Changing Climes: Training Future River Professionals

RMS 4-C logo

The Conference includes several opportunities for great training, April 14-18, 2014, Denver, Colorado

Registration is open. Visit the registration site for details, prices and more

Join us at the 12th biennial River Management Society week of training for agency managers, planners, watershed and watertrails practitioners, where you can update skills, planning tools and best practices to your desk or field-based job. This is an invaluable networking opportunity for those who study, teach and practice river skills and policy for agencies, non-profit organizations and private industry. PLUS: This year we offer a standalone Continuing Legal Education workshop, a one day seminar approved by the Association of Floodplain Managers, and a multi-day workshop taught by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regarding FERC Form 80

Posters are still being accepted: you are cordially invited to submit an abstract here.  See below for poster submission information.

Scholarships are available to members (for a year or more) in good standing. Apply here!

Click here for more information

Training Packages

One Day Trainings (Stand alone)

Legal                Continuing legal education conference* presented by CLE International

Floodplain Management                Seminar approved by the Association of State Floodplain Managers (ASFPM)**

Full RMS Event: April 15-17, 2014

Full RMS Event plus FERC Form 80 Training***: April 15-18, 2014

FERC Form 80 Training, standalone: April 16-18, 2014

*CLE International is pleased to offer a one-day stand-alone educational conference.  Join us on Monday, April 14 for a full day of in-depth analysis of legal issues that are most important to professionals tasked with protecting and managing our nation’s rivers. Attendees will receive up to seven hours of continuing education credits while learning from leading experts.   Tuition discounts available for RMS members, government and 501(c)(3) employees, and groups of two or more from the same organization. For program, pricing and registration, visit http://www.cle.com/RMS beginning January 3, 2014.

** This one day standalone training will feature five courses approved by the Association of Flooplain Managers (ASFPM) and approved for ten (10) CECs. Register for this standalone course on the RMS event site, to open by December 18, 2013.

*** This workshop entitled Getting the Most out of the Form 80: Tips for Quantifying Recreation Use & Gathering Better Data will be taught by Federal Energy Regulatory Commission staff and can be attended as a stand-alone workshop or as part of the full RMS training event. Registration for this workshop is on the RMS training event site, to open by December 18, 2013.

horizontal - presented by cropped, compressed for documents

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Want to work on the river? Enjoy rowing boats and helping the environment? There is a job for you!

Colorado Endangered Fish Recovery project

English: Patch showing the logo of the U.S. Fi...

English: Patch showing the logo of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on an USFWS employee’s uniform. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

It is hard work with long days when on the river.  It is for the Colorado Endangered Fish Recovery project and you will see some awesome canyons and learn a lot about the endangered fish.  The heart of the program is a shocking operation to check on the progress of the fish.  So you have to row the heavy boats down the edge of the river unlike normal river running.  So if you know of someone forward this to them.  If selected you have to get what is called a DUNS number and go through a complicated process to get paid as the government has changed the way it pays these salaries, but I did it, so with a little patience anyone else can do it.

Small Craft Operator (boatmen) jobs for FWS

Below is a link to the FWS boat operator announcement. We are looking at hiring these positions in Vernal and Grand Junction. The announcement will be open for about 10 days from today. Please forward to anyone you think might be interested.

Thanks,

M. Tildon Jones, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Vernal, UT

435.789.0351 x14

tildon_jones@fws.gov

R6-14-1025704-D

https://www.usajobs.gov/GetJob/ViewDetails/358861200

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Image of a Humpback Chub taken by the United S...

Image of a Humpback Chub taken by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

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Grand Canyon Private Boaters Association: If you are not a member you should be!

Heading_Frame_2.jpg View it in your browser.
Nankoweap_1496c6e.1e68b63.jpg
Protecting Archeological Sites in Grand Canyonunkar2c10e98.jpg
This collection pile has destroyed some of the archaeological information these artifacts once possessed.It is very important that we, as users of the park, recognize the significance and fragility of archeological sites located in and around Grand Canyon. In 1995, under Superintendent Arnberger, sites were classified in a four tiered system. Class I sites can be regularly visited because they receive the most physical protection. Class II sites receive less maintenance, but are able to withstand fairly high levels of use. Class III sites are not well known, fragile, are not closed, but can tolerate only limited, prudent visitation. Class IV sites are closed to ALL visitation. Please practice a bit of etiquette when visiting any site, ie. walk on durable surfaces; discourage unnecessay handling of surface objects; if you do pick something up, replace it from where it came; avoid touching petroglyphs and pictographs, oils from human skin can degrade pigments and rock surfaces, never camp or eat at a site and never use it as a bathroom; and above all, use common sense anytime you visit a site. Remember the people who will come after you. Click here for more information and a list of Class I and Class II sites.

National Association of State Boating Law Administrators deadline extended on Basic Human Propelled (Paddlesport, etc.) Boating Knowledge Standards Call for Proposed Regulations

Comment periods for boating education standards extended through Jan. 1. If you have not reviewed the new standards and you are part of this industry you should. Now!NASBLA_paddlesports_final_02-01

Public comment periods for two national boating education standards have been extended or re-opened through Jan. 1, 2014. Due to technical difficulties identified during the site registration process, National Boating Education Standards Panel Chair Jeff Johnson has announced additional 30-day periods to ensure the opportunity for public input, review and comment on the following:

·         The P-1-20XX Basic Boating Knowledge Standard’s Public Review Period is re-opened through Jan. 1, 2014. All previously submitted comments remain active and DO NOT need to be re-submitted. These will be posted in a separate EXCEL file on this site ASAP for reference and review. Additional comments can be posted by any interested party.

·         The H-1-20XX Basic Human-Propelled (Paddlesports, etc.) Boating Knowledge Standard’s Call for Proposed Revisions period, originally scheduled to end Dec. 2, is extended an additional 30 days through Jan. 1, 2014.

If you have questions or need assistance in any way, please contact ESP staff member Pamela Dillon.

Here is a link to the National Paddlesport Standards currently in effect (since 2009): http://nasbla.org/files/public/Educ/Approval/Standards/Paddlesports%20Standards-final%20-Jan%202009.pdf

These standards have been reformatted  (and more numbers added for ease of reference) and are retitled as H-1-20XX Basic Human-Propelled (Paddlesports, etc.) Knowledge standards and reposted on this site for public review and comment:  http://esp.nasbla.org/esp/index.cfm

Do Something

If you are in the paddlesports industry go find out what is changing in how we teach the sport. If you have a concern, register and comment!NASBLA

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National Association of State Boating Law Administrators deadline for National Paddlesports Education Standards is due

Comments for Paddlesports Standards due Dec. 2

National Association of State Boating Law Administrators

NASBLA’sEducation Standards Panel has issued a Call for Proposed Revisions to the content of the most currently approved version of the National Paddlesports Education Standards (which went into effect Jan. 1, 2009). Submissions are encouraged from any party materially affected by the standard, including NASBLA members and nonmembers alike. The comment period closes on Dec. 2.

Input on the standard will be accepted exclusively via the EZ-ESP website. Instructions for submitting comments (including how to obtain login credentials for the EZ-ESP website) and documents containing the current standard, the reformatted standard and the Education Standards Panel Rules are available for download at http://esp.nasbla.org/esp.

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Are You Familiar with the Dolores River? Then you should be a member of the Dolores River Boating Advocates

Recreation, conservation, agriculture and river management

Portrait_woodblock.1c9fd02.jpg Friend Us On Facebook

River Management

Description: https://gallery.mailchimp.com/4e65386f5e96006b34ac94841/images/DSC_0282e5f4a37497fd.JPGLast month, the long-awaited San Juan National Forest Plan and the Bureau of Land Management’s Tres Rios Resource Management Plan were released. These plans will help guide the management of the Dolores River for the next twenty years and beyond. Local stakeholder efforts will also play into the fate of the Dolores. And while the federal government is “shutdown,” local discussions about Dolores River management continue on subjects as varied as Land Use Codes, the Dolores River Valley Plan, and the Lower Dolores River Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation Plan (Implementation Plan). This month, we at DRBA are diving deeper into the topic of native fish in the Lower Dolores River, and how enhanced flows can improve their natural habitat while simultaneously providing recreational opportunities. Re-establishing a flow regime that mimics historical hydrography is a vital step towards restoring the natural balance of the river. Colorado Parks and Wildlife Biologist Jim White joined us on The River Trip on KSJD this month to discuss the status of native fish in the Dolores River. Jim’s research and experience illustrates that mindful management of the river is warranted to save native species and habitat. He also pointed out the need to do this in concert with community water allocation needs. These efforts are symbiotic. As a civilization, we need to support healthy rivers, clean water, and strong natural processes as all of that, in turn, supports us. Native fish flows and whitewater rafting flows are also symbiotic in terms of being mutually beneficial, as discussed in the following feature by DRBA Board Member Sam Carter. Management plans offer prime opportunities to actualize a balance for the cultural ecology of the Dolores River watershed. Read on, and join us in our efforts and enthusiasm in protecting the Dolores River. *Links for italicized plans are at the bottom of the page.

View from the Board

By DRBA Board Member Sam Carter

Tropical Storm Ivo brought just shy of two inches of rain to much of the Dolores River Basin near the end of August. The rain provided a dichotomous situation for the thirsty land of Southwest Colorado. Along with the welcome moisture came a flash flood on the Lower Dolores River in Slickrock Canyon. The Dolores River rose from 11cfs (cubic feet/second) to 400cfs from Ivo’s rains washing out immense amounts of accumulated silt. The silt had built up because, aside from a few minor flash floods, there has not been a sustained strong flush through the Dolores River canyon since the summer of 2011, and these important flushing flows have been irregular since McPhee Dam was developed. When Ivo’s rains came through, this silt became a muddy slurry that was uninhabitable to the fish in the river. Scores of them died, starved of the oxygen they need to survive. Observing all of this was a Cortez Journal reporter and a team of fish biologists from Colorado Parks and Wildlife who were conducting an annual native fish survey.

While the rain was welcome for the thirsty lands of Southwestern Colorado, the unfortunate die-off of the fish was a striking eye-opener concerning the state of the Dolores River below McPhee Reservoir. It is understood that the water in the lake provides a great deal of life for Montezuma and Dolores counties through municipal and agricultural uses. Yet, the removal of this water at the current levels is harming the ecosystem of the river itself, as seen through the decline of native fish species. The scientific investigations from the Dolores River Dialogue and the “A Way Forward” native fish studies clearly state that without change to flows, the health of the fish will only further deteriorate.

This recent flash flood event in the Slickrock Canyon highlights the urgency of the situation. The native fish in the Dolores River are not reproducing well, the population is aging, their habitat is being reduced, and they are under predation from non-native fish. Time is of the essence for the survival of these species.

Fortunately, a diverse group of stakeholders has been working to meet the various social and ecological needs of the water of the Dolores River. The native fish research from the A Way Forward project has been translated into a flow management plan that accommodates agricultural, municipal, and recreational uses. Supporting this effort benefits all of us.

Dolores River Boating Advocates (DRBA) supports efforts to improve flows that support native fish. We encourage managing base flow releases out of McPhee dam to provide for significant springtime flushes. Such flushes would enhance eco-system conditions for native fish populations, as well as allow for a whitewater boating season to occur. We believe this can be done while honoring the needs of our municipalities and of agricultural irrigation users. DRBA understands the challenges involved with this pursuit, and is actively working to assist in the process of developing flows that sustain fish health, whitewater opportunities, and municipal and agricultural use. DRBA encourages residents of Montezuma and Dolores counties to attend to the needs of the Dolores River’s health while also respecting the water needs of residents.


Say What?

San Juan National Forest/BLM Tres Rios Field Office Management Plans: Plans that address long-term management of 2.4 acres of public lands. More info can be found at http://www.fs.usda.gov/main/sanjuan/landmanagement/planning.

The River Trip: DRBA’s monthly radio show on KSJD that focuses on stories and issue of the Dolores River. This month’s show with Colorado Parks and Wildlife Biologist Jim White can be heard at: http://www.ksjd.org/audio.cfm?mode=detail&id=1360871370101.

Implementation Plan: Short for the “Lower Dolores River Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation Plan” which is the culmination of the native fish research project, “A Way Forward” (see below) and a general assessment of community water needs. The Implementation Plan addresses the dynamics and critical components of improving flows in the lower Dolores River. Draft reports can be found at http://ocs.fortlewis.edu/drd/implementationTeamReports.htm.

A Way Forward: A report conducted by three independent scientists to evaluate the status of native fish in the Lower Dolores River. The Report can be found at: http://ocs.fortlewis.edu/drd/way-forward.htm.

Cultural Ecology: The study of human adaptations to social and physical environments. Human adaptation refers to both biological and cultural processes that enable a population to survive and reproduce within a given or changing environment.

Our mission: Dolores River Boating Advocates seeks to optimize flows, restore the natural environment, and permanently protect the Dolores River for whitewater boating.

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Upcoming Events

10/29-11/1
River Watch Training, Cedaredge, CO
River Watch is a statewide volunteer water quality-monitoring program operated by the Colorado Watershed Assembly in cooperation with Colorado Parks and Wildlife. River Watch trains voluntary stewards to monitor water quality and other indicators of watershed health, and utilizes this high quality data to educate citizens and inform decision makers about the condition of Colorado’s waters. Please contact us if you are interested in attending the training and helping us with water quality monitoring on the Dolores River.

11/1
Water 101, 8am-5pm, Holiday Inn Express, 2121 East Main Street, Cortez, CO

The Seminar features a line-up of experts, including keynote speaker Colorado Supreme Court Justice Gregory Hobbs, as well as representatives from federal, state, and local agencies who will provide an understanding of local water law and related issues including: local water sources, water administration, irrigation conservation, environmental concerns and answers to key questions pertaining to the acquisition and use of water, as well as water related real estate transactions.

11/12
Montezuma County BOCC Special Meeting on Land Use Codes and the Dolores River Plan, 1:30 PM, Montezuma County Courthouse, 109 Main Street, Cortez

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Dolores River Facts

The Dolores River is 230 miles long from the headwaters in the San Juan Mountains near Rico, Colorado to the confluence with the Colorado River at Dewey Bridge near Moab, Utah.

The lower Dolores River is home to five species of native fish including the Flannelmouth sucker, the Bluehead sucker, the Roundtail chub, the Speckled dace and the Mottled sculpin.

McPhee Dam increased the amount of irrigated land from 37,500 acres to 73,600 acres while also increasing water delivery up to two months.

DSCN798338c6e2.1.1.1.jpgWe want to hear from you!
Please send your Dolores River stories for our newsletter to: info, and check out our website (www.doloresriverboating.org) and Facebook page where you can post your comments, photos, and stories.
Copyright © 2013 Dolores River Boating Advocates, All rights reserved.
You are receiving this email because you opted in at our website or provided us with your contact information at an event.
Our mailing address is:Dolores River Boating AdvocatesPO Box 1173

Dolores, CO 81323

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Dolores River Boating Advocates is looking for a Program Coordinator

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Help Wanted

DRBA is looking for the next Program Coordinator to manage the day-to-day operations of the group. Jay Loschert, the current Program Coordinator, is moving to Phoenix at the end of July. Interested individuals should visit the info by June 25. This is a part-time contract position with a start date of August 1, 2013.

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News May 27, 2013

Rundown of weekly news that might be of interest!

 

Legal

The age that minors become adults.

I am constantly writing about the different legal issues of minors, here you can check on what that means for your state.

The age when a minor becomes an adult is currently 18 in 47 states. Alabama and Nebraska state law says an adult is someone who is 19 or older and Mississippi an adult is 21 or older.

There are exceptions for all the laws on minority in each state. A minor can become an adult if they marry, if they are emancipated or by special statutory exceptions.

See http://rec-law.us/13YGKFq

 

Against the law now for kids to not pay attention?

Parents sue because kids were playing. Group of kids on a YMCA outing to a miniature golf course were playing around. One kid hit another in the mouth with a golf club and injured the girl. The parents are suing for inadequate supervision.

How many adults would you have to have to keep kids from playing around? 10 kids, 20 adults? The only result of these suits is kids are not going to be taken care of by adults except their parents.

See http://rec-law.us/11s9pNV

 

Commercial whitewater fatality on the Kenai Peninsula‘s Six Mile Creek.

See http://rec-law.us/11qnIm6

 

 

Skiing

Vail just got bigger!

Vail resorts just signed a 50 year lease to run The Canyons in Utah. This will make the Vail Season pretty amazing. Nine resorts (the PR forgot about #A-Basin) will be available to season pass holders in three states: CO, UT and CA.

See http://rec-law.us/159gWWI

 

Is resort a fake? Town is

New 23 lift resort has been approved in #BC Canada. Approval was granted by a town council of a town that does not exist…..

See http://rec-law.us/11yCD3F

 

Paddlesports

Rituals v. Habits

Great article about how commercial boatman, sometimes pick up habits that become rituals in the Grand Canyon.

See http://rec-law.us/13SNq7U

 

If you can call water flowing between concrete walls on a concrete floor a river……

The Los Angeles River is now open to the public again. Or at least 2.5 miles of it.

See http://rec-law.us/15iCm3b

 

Training

Future Career or future disability

Training kids too hard to early does not create great athletic prodigies, only injuries.

See http://rec-law.us/124vKIG

#Nike has stopped its support for #LiveStrong.

See http://rec-law.us/10xQPsb

 

Mountaineering

Climb meaning sitting in you easy chair with a beer

New iOs App allows you to climb Mtn Everest.

See http://rec-law.us/18om8tK

 

One way to get down

Video of a base jump? Paraglide off Mt. Everest

See http://rec-law.us/10MdBJm

 

Overachievers!

Not satisfied to climb Mt #Everest once, David Liano Gonzalez climbed it twice, in the same season, once from the South Side (Nepalese) and once from the North Side (Chinese).

See http://rec-law.us/13nZV9j

 

It’s still climbing….right?

Companies are considering putting a ladder on the Hilliary Step on Mt. Everest. There is already a ladder on the North side.

See http://rec-law.us/ZcpsTx

Nepal demanding payment for summit broadcast

There are actually rules for climbing Mt. #Everest. One of those is you cannot #broadcast from sacred areas. The summit is a sacred area. Now Nepal wants paid for a broadcast.

See http://rec-law.us/146m6Qi

 

OR Business

Things change

#Nike has stopped its support for #LiveStrong.

See http://rec-law.us/10xQPsb

 

OR Life

Animals are amazing

Video of amazing ways that animals defend themselves.

See http://rec-law.us/13YGCWv

Oh, I’m a survivor

What happens after 400 years under a #glacier and the glacier retreats? Well if you are a #Moss you start to grow again.

See http://rec-law.us/13YGExx

 

This is just so wrong

10 Apps for Enjoying the Great Outdoors

See http://rec-law.us/159rmWq

 

 

Environment

With Glaciers retreating the mountains are coming down also.

See http://rec-law.us/16sM4o9

 

Cycling

Infographic for cycling pre-ride checklist.

See http://rec-law.us/133kAka

 

Mind the Ride

A bike riding group, Denver Cruisers (http://rec-law.us/17t1bOD) which rides every Wednesday night around downtown Denver has created a bicycle awareness campaign.

The campaign is pretty stark, very good and great for a group just not to promote themselves.

See http://rec-law.us/18z1SDb

 

 

What do you think? Leave a comment.

If you like this let your friends know or post it on FB, Twitter or LinkedIn

What do you think? Leave a comment.

If you like this let your friends know or post it on FB, Twitter or LinkedIn

Copyright 2013 Recreation Law (720) Edit Law

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2013 Northwest Paddling Festival Vendor Information Package

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2013 Northwest Paddling Festival

May 10, 2013 – Private Manufacturer/Retail Clinic Day

May 11, 2013 – Festival Open to the Public

Lake Sammamish State Park. Issaquah, WA

For Vendor Information PDF. click herewww.northwestpaddlingfestival.com

Great Holiday Greetings: Sea Kayaker Magazine

gifHappy Holidays!

From all of us atSea Kayaker Magazinegif
Kayak photo of Chris, Michael, Paul, Joan, Kat, Jackie
Chris – Michael – Paul – Joan – Kat – Jackie
Sea Kayaker Staff left high and dry in their kayaks.
Good tidings! The tide will always come back in.
This message was sent to recreation.law from:Sea Kayaker Magazine | PO Box 17029 | Seattle, WA 98127-0729 Email Marketing by iContact - Try It Free!
Update Email Address | Forward To a Friend

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L.L. Bean and Point 65 to creat kayak with 100 L.L. Bean Employees

L.L.Beanto attempt getting 100 employees into world’s longest modular kayak in celebration of its 100th Anniversary during Annual PaddleSports Weekend, June 1-3

The event will also feature free boat testing, demonstrations, clinics, kid’s activities, guided kayak tours, free oceanside cookout, live music and great deals.

FREEPORT, ME.—As part of its ongoing 100th Anniversary celebration, L.L.Bean will attempt to get 100 employees into a uniquely built kayak that is nearly 500’ long during their 31st Annual PaddleSports Weekend. This could be a world-record for the longest modular kayak ever and if successful, L.L.Bean will submit it to Guinness World Records for consideration. The unique kayak being used for the attempt, the Point 65N Modular Kayak, is able to be joined together in sections, thus creating a kayak that will be approximately 500’ long–possibly the longest ever. The attempt will be made on Saturday, June 2nd at 11 a.m. at the L.L.Bean Paddling Center on Lower Flying Point in Freeport, Maine. The public is welcome to attend this event as well as all of the other family-fun activities at the Paddling Center over the weekend. Free shuttles will be available to take people to and from the Flagship Store all weekend long.

“What a perfect, fun way to infuse the essence of our 100th Anniversary, as well as our outdoor spirit into this event,” said Scot Balentine, L.L.Bean’s senior developer for outdoor equipment. “The 100 employees that are taking part are very excited to be sharing in this fun and historic moment. To set a new world record would simply put an exclamation point on what will no doubt be an already exhilarating experience.”

Other event highlights for the PaddleSports Weekend include a variety of waterfront activities at the L.L.Bean Paddling Center just minutes from the store on Saturday and Sunday, such as a free oceanside cookout, free boat testing with hundreds of kayaks, stand-up paddleboards and canoes. Plus folks will have the chance to speak with industry vendors and experts. In addition, there will be live music with the Eric Bettencourt on Saturday and Putnam Smith on Sunday, craft making for kids and more. Free shuttles will be running all weekend long to and from the Flagship Store and the Paddling Center.

The L.L.Bean Outdoor Discovery Schools will also offer 90-minute kayak tours of beautiful Casco Bay for only $35 and an Intro to Stand-Up Paddleboarding course for only $29. The L.L.Bean Outdoor Discovery Schools will also be offering their Kayaking Discovery Course all weekend for only $20. Space is limited, so please call 888-552-3261 to reserve your spot.

At the L.L.Bean Campus of Stores in downtown Freeport, there are even more terrific events such as demonstrations and clinics on everything from how to get into stand-up paddleboarding, selecting the right paddle, paddling techniques, as well as non-profit guests, vendors and much more. Special promotions start Friday and include 20% off the purchase of kayaks, stand-up paddleboards, canoes and Thule® car racks. L.L.Bean will also be offering a free extension middle section from the world record attempt (up to a $500 value) with the purchase of a Point 65N Modular Kayak while supplies last, For more information, please visit www.llbean.com/freeport, or call 877-755-2326.

About L.L.Bean, Inc.

L.L.Bean, Inc. is a leading multi-channel merchant of quality outdoor gear and apparel. Celebrating its 100th Anniversary this year, the company was founded in 1912 by Leon Leonwood Bean and began as a one-room operation selling a single product, the Maine Hunting Shoe. While the business has grown substantially, the company remains committed to the same honest principles upon which it was built–a focus on the customer, continuous product improvement and innovation, respect for people, preservation of the natural environment and a 100% satisfaction guarantee. The 220,000 sq. ft. Flagship campus of stores in Freeport, Maine is open 24 hours a day, 365 days a year and welcomes more than three million visitors each year. L.L.Bean can be found worldwide on www.llbean.com, L.L.Bean Facebook, L.L.Bean Twitter and L.L.Bean YouTube.

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