Georgia Ski Safety Act

Georgia Ski Safety Act

OFFICIAL CODE OF GEORGIA ANNOTATED

Copyright 2012 by The State of Georgia

TITLE 43. PROFESSIONS AND BUSINESSES

CHAPTER 43A. SNOW SKIING SAFETY

GO TO GEORGIA STATUTES ARCHIVE DIRECTORY

O.C.G.A. § 43-43A-1 (2012)

§ 43-43A-1. Definitions

As used in this chapter, the term:

(1) “Base area lift” means a passenger tramway to gain access to some other part of the ski area.

(2) “Competitor” means a skier engaging in competition or preparing for competition on a slope or trail designated by the ski area or used by the skier for the purpose of competition or training for competition.

(3) “Conditions of ordinary visibility” means all periods of daylight, and, when visibility is not restricted by weather or other atmospheric conditions, nighttime.

(4) “Inherent dangers and risks of skiing” means categories of danger or risks of skiing, or conditions of the sport of skiing that cause or can cause any injury, death, or property damage, including:

(A) Changing weather conditions;

(B) Surface and subsurface snow or ice conditions as they may exist or change from time to time, including variable conditions such as hard packed powder, packed powder, wind-blown snow, wind-packed snow, corn snow, crust slush, snow modified by skier use, or cut up snow; surface or subsurface snow or ice conditions as they exist or may change as the result of weather changes or skier use; snow created by or resulting from snow making or snow grooming operations; or collisions or falls resulting from such conditions;

(C) Surface or subsurface conditions other than those specified in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, including dirt, grass, rocks, trees, stumps, other forms of forest or vegetative growth, stream beds, or other natural objects or debris; or collisions or falls resulting from such conditions;

(D) Collisions with: lift towers; components of lift towers; signs, posts, fences, mazes, or other enclosure devices; hydrants, pipes, or any other portions of snow making or snow delivery systems; snow grooming equipment or other over-snow vehicles marked or lighted as required by this chapter; or collisions with or falls resulting from any such structures or any other manmade structures or their components;

(E) Variations in surface, contour, or steepness of terrain, including, but not limited to, moguls, ski jumps, roads, depressions, water bars, and cat walks; other terrain changes or modifications which occur naturally or result from slope design or construction, snow making, snow grooming, maintenance operations, or skier use; or collisions with or falls resulting from such variations; and

(F) Collisions with other skiers unless such collisions are caused by the failure on the part of other skiers to conduct themselves in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.

(5) “Passenger” means a person who is lawfully being transported by a passenger tramway.

(6) “Passenger tramway” means any mechanical device used to transport passengers uphill, but such term does not include over-snow vehicles.

(7) “Ski area” means all snow ski slopes or trails and other places under the control of a ski area operator at a defined business location within this state.

(8) “Ski area operator” means an individual, partnership, corporation, or other commercial entity who owns, manages, or otherwise directs or has operational responsibility for any ski area.

(9) “Ski slopes or trails” means those areas open to the skiing public and designated by the ski area operator to be used by a skier. The designation may be generally set forth on trail maps and further designated by signage posted to indicate to the skiing public the intent that the areas be used by the skier for the purpose of skiing. Nothing in this paragraph implies that ski slopes or trails may not be restricted for use at the discretion of the ski area operator.

(10) “Skier” means any person who uses any part of a ski area for the purpose of skiing, snowboard skiing, or sliding or moving on any device other than a motorized device or any person except a passenger who uses any of the facilities of the ski area, including the ski slopes and trails.

(11) “Surface lift” means any passenger tramway that allows the skier’s sliding equipment to stay in contact with the skier and the snow during all of the uphill transportation.

§ 43-43A-2. Use of passenger tramway; passenger rules

(a) No passenger shall use a passenger tramway if the passenger does not have sufficient knowledge, ability, or physical dexterity to negotiate or use the facility safely unless and until the passenger has asked for and received information sufficient to enable the passenger to use the equipment safely. A passenger is required to follow any written, verbal, or other instructions that are given by ski area personnel regarding the use of the passenger tramway.

(b) No passenger shall:

(1) Attempt to enter, use, exit, or leave a passenger tramway except at a location designated by ski area signage for that purpose, except that, in the event of a stoppage of the passenger tramway, a passenger may exit under the supervision and direction of the operator or its representatives, or, in the event of an emergency, a passenger may exit in order to prevent an injury to the passenger or others;

(2) Throw, drop, or release any object from a passenger tramway except as directed by the operator or its representatives;

(3) Act in any manner that may interfere with the proper or safe operation of the passenger tramway or cause any risk, harm, or injury to any person;

(4) Place in an uphill track of any surface lift any object that may cause damage to property or injury to any person;

(5) Use or attempt to use any passenger tramway marked as closed; or

(6) Disobey any instructions posted in accordance with this chapter or any verbal or other instructions of the ski area operator or its lawful designee regarding the use of passenger tramways.

§ 43-43A-3. Sign system; inspection; explanation of signs and symbols; warning signs; degree of difficulty signs

(a) Each ski area operator shall maintain a sign system with information for the instruction of passengers and skiers. Signs must be in English and visible in conditions of ordinary visibility and, where applicable, lighted for nighttime passengers. Without limitation, the signs shall be posted:

(1) At or near the loading point of each passenger tramway, regardless of the type, advising all persons that if they are not familiar with the operation of the device, they must ask the operator of the device for assistance and instructions and that they must understand such instructions before they attempt to use the passenger tramway; and

(2) At or near the boarding area of each lift, setting forth the warning regarding inherent dangers and risks and duties as provided in this chapter.

(b) The ski area operator, before opening a passenger tramway to the public each day, shall inspect the passenger tramway for the presence and visibility of all required signs.

(c) The ski area operator shall post a sign visible to skiers who are proceeding to the uphill loading point of each base area lift which shall depict and explain the following signs and symbols that a skier may encounter at the ski area:

(1) A green circle and the word “easier” designating the ski area’s least difficult trails and slopes;

(2) A blue square and the words “more difficult” designating the ski area’s trails and slopes that have a degree of difficulty that lies between the least difficult and most difficult trails and slopes;

(3) A black diamond and the words “most difficult” designating the ski area’s most difficult trails and slopes;

(4) Two black diamonds and the words “most difficult” designating a slope or trail which meets the description of “most difficult” but which is particularly challenging; and

(5) Crossed poles or other images clearly indicating that a trail or slope is closed and may not be used by skiers.

(d) If applicable, a warning sign shall be placed at or near the loading point of a passenger tramway indicating that it provides access to only “most difficult” or “more difficult” slopes or trails.

(e) The ski area operator shall place a sign at or near the beginning of each trail or slope indicating the relative degree of difficulty of that particular trail or slope.

§ 43-43A-4. Warning notice

(a) The ski area operator shall post and maintain signs that contain the following warning notice:

“WARNING: Under Georgia law, every skier accepts the risk of any injury or death and damage to property resulting from any of the inherent dangers or risks of skiing. The inherent dangers or risks of skiing, or conditions of the sport of skiing that cause or can cause injury, death, or property damage, include:

(1) Changing weather conditions;

(2) Surface and subsurface snow or ice conditions as they may exist or change from time to time, including variable conditions such as hard packed powder, packed powder, wind-blown snow, wind-packed snow, corn snow, crust slush, snow modified by skier use, or cut up snow; surface or subsurface snow or ice conditions as they exist or may change as the result of weather changes or skier use; snow created by or resulting from snow making or snow grooming operations; or collisions or falls resulting from such conditions;

(3) Surface or subsurface conditions other than those specified in paragraph (2), including dirt, grass, rocks, trees, stumps, other forms of forest or vegetative growth, stream beds, or other natural objects or debris; or collisions or falls resulting from such conditions;

(4) Collisions with: lift towers; components of lift towers; signs, posts, fences, mazes, or other enclosure devices; hydrants, pipes, or any other portions of snow making or snow delivery systems; snow grooming equipment or other over-snow vehicles marked or lighted as required by this chapter; or collisions with or falls resulting from any such structures or any other manmade structures or their components;

(5) Variations in surface, contour, or steepness of terrain, including, but not limited to, moguls, ski jumps, roads, depressions, water bars, and cat walks; other terrain changes or modifications which occur naturally or result from slope design or construction, snow making, snow grooming, maintenance operations, or skier use; or collisions with or falls resulting from such variations; and

(6) Collisions with other skiers.”

(b) A warning sign as described in subsection (a) of this Code section shall be placed:

(1) At the ski area in the location where lift tickets or ski school lessons are sold;

(2) In the vicinity of the uphill loading point of each base area lift; and

(3) At such other places as the ski area operator may select.

(c) Each sign required by subsection (a) of this Code section shall be no smaller than 3 feet by 3 feet and shall be white or yellow with black and red letters as specified in this subsection. The word “WARNING” shall appear on the sign in red letters. The warning notice specified in subsection (a) of this Code section shall appear on the sign in black letters with each letter being a minimum of one inch in height.

(d) Every passenger tramway ticket sold may contain the warning notice specified in subsection (a) of this Code section.

§ 43-43A-6. Revocation of skiing privileges

Each ski area operator, upon finding a person skiing in violation of any posted regulations governing skiing conduct, may revoke that person’s skiing privileges. This Code section shall not in any way be construed to create an affirmative duty on the part of the ski area operator to protect skiers from their own or other skiers’ careless or reckless behavior, including any skier’s violation of any duties set forth in this chapter.

§ 43-43A-7. Duties and responsibilities of each skier; assumption of risk

Any other provision of law to the contrary notwithstanding:

(1) Each individual skier has the responsibility for knowing the range of his or her own ability to negotiate any ski slope or trail or any portion thereof and must ski within the limits of his or her ability. Each skier expressly accepts and assumes the risk of any injury or death or damage to property resulting from any of the inherent dangers and risks of skiing, as set forth in this chapter; provided, however, that injuries sustained in a collision with another skier are not an inherent risk of the sport for purposes of this Code section;

(2) Each skier has the duty to maintain control of his or her speed and course at all times and to maintain a proper lookout so as to be able to avoid other skiers and objects, natural or manmade. The skier shall have the primary duty to avoid colliding with any persons or objects below him or her on the trail;

(3) No skier shall ski on a ski slope or trail that has been posted as closed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter;

(4) Each skier shall stay clear of all snow grooming or snow making equipment, vehicles, lift towers, signs, and any other equipment at the ski area;

(5) Each skier shall obey all posted information, warnings, and requirements and shall refrain from acting in any manner that might cause or contribute to the injury of the skier or any other person. Each skier shall be charged with having seen and understood all information posted as required or permitted in this chapter. Each skier shall locate and ascertain the meaning of all signs posted in accordance with this chapter;

(6) Each sliding device used by a skier shall be equipped with a strap or other device designed to help reduce the risk of any runaway equipment should it become unattached from the skier;

(7) No skier shall cross the uphill track of any surface lift device except at locations designated by the operator, nor shall any person place any object in the uphill track of such a device;

(8) Before beginning to ski from a stationary position, or before entering a ski slope or trail, the skier shall have the duty of yielding to moving skiers already using the slope or trail;

(9) No skier shall stop where he or she obstructs a trail or is not visible from higher on the slope or trail; and

(10) No skier shall board or use or attempt to board or use any passenger tramway of any type or use any ski slope or trail while that skier’s ability to do so is impaired by alcohol, drugs, or any controlled substance.



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