2016-2017 In bound ski/board fatalities

This list is not guaranteed to be accurate. The information is found from web searches and news dispatches. Those references are part of the chart. If you have a source for information on any fatality please leave a comment or contact me. Thank you.

If this information is incorrect or incomplete please let me know.  This is up to date as of March 30, 2017. Thanks.

Skiing and Snowboarding are still safer than being in your kitchen or bathroom. This information is not to scare you away from skiing but to help you understand the risks.

Red type is natural or medical conditions that occurred inbounds on the slopes

Green Type is Fatalities while sledding at the Resort

Blue Type is a Lift Accidents

Purple Type is Employee or Ski Patroller

 

# Date State Resort Where Trail Difficulty How Cause of death Ski/ Board Age Sex Home town Helmet Reference Ref # 2
1 11/26 CO Keystone Elk Run Intermediate Hit lift tower at high speed   Skier 18 M LA Y http://rec-law.us/2h2ul1Z http://rec-law.us/2gXbKA8
2 12/10 VT Killington Ski Area   Intermediate Found dead   Skier 65 M Lagrangeville, NY   http://rec-law.us/2hml9oW http://rec-law.us/2gHi01C
3 12/11 CA Northstar Village Run Expert (off duty ski instructor) hit several rocks and crashed into a creek avoiding other skier   Skier 35 M Incline Village, NV & Kings Beach Y http://rec-law.us/2hwJAAy http://rec-law.us/2gwnmJQ
4 12/11 NV Alpental Ski area     Tree Well death was asphyxia due to immersion in snow Skier 45 M     http://rec-law.us/2hqZSb9 http://rec-law.us/2hqZSb9
5 12/11 NV Mt. Rose The Chutes   Avalanche in closed run   Skier 60 M     http://rec-law.us/2gHp1iZ http://rec-law.us/2hAAxOP
6 12/12 VT Killington Ski Area         Skier 80 M Wappingers Falls, NY   http://rec-law.us/2hqD3UN  
7 12/19 CO Breckenridge Alpine Alley   Hit a tree accidental blunt force trauma   48 M Longmont CO Y http://rec-law.us/2hckGX4 http://rec-law.us/2ialr2Y
8 12/29 CO Ski Granby Ranch Quick Draw Express lift   Fell out of chair lift traumatic rupture of the aorta and blunt force trauma to the torso Skier 40 F San Antonio, TX   http://rec-law.us/2ixiwhN http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation-now/2016/12/29/mom-dies-daughters-hurt-chairlift/95988502/
9 12/31 UT Snowbasin     Hit tree   Skier 24 M Ogden, UT Y http://rec-law.us/2iV7Qg8 http://rec-law.us/2hQsaKC
10 1/1/17 MI Crystal Mountain Penny Lane Intermediate lost control and veered into a tree crash cracked Delaney’s helmet and caused a serious brain injury Skier 10 F La Grange, IL Y http://rec-law.us/2hSv1pC http://rec-law.us/2hSz19J
11 1/1 OR Mt. Baker     Found slumped over snowmobile     67 M     http://rec-law.us/2iIa5mA  
12 1/7 VT Killington Skyeship Gondola   Found on Floor Fall     M     http://rec-law.us/2iWImP5  
13 1/13 CO Breckenridge   Expert Found by ski patrol Skull Fracture   47 M Longmot, CO N http://rec-law.us/2jZgniK http://rec-law.us/2jkovaw
14 1/16 VT Sugar Bush Mount Ellen   Hit Tree Hampden Skier 39 M Hampden, MA N http://rec-law.us/2jqt6un http://rec-law.us/2jqt6un
15   PA Shawnee Mountain Ski Area     lost control and struck an orange safety fence     15 F Singapore   http://rec-law.us/2jSL1X9 http://rec-law.us/2j38nt0
16 1/14 UT Brighton Ski Resort     hit a tree   Boarder 35 M Millcreek, UT   http://rec-law.us/2jsJevi http://rec-law.us/2jGiFA6
17 1/14 NY Belleayre Mountain Ski Center Wanatuska Trail Expert     Boarding 25 M Centersport, NY   http://rec-law.us/2jDcHlZ http://rec-law.us/2jGKr1J
18 1/24 CA Squaw Valley Gold Coast Ridge   denotation of an explosive charge     42 M Olympic Valley, CA   http://rec-law.us/2jXfW7Y http://rec-law.us/2kqBruQ
19 1/26 WA Stevens Pass Mountain Resort Mill Valley side Expert found the man unresponsive and not breathing     55 M Woodinville, WA   http://rec-law.us/2kBlZQD  
20 1/26 PA Camelback Ski Resort Hump Expert he went off the trail   Boarding 21 M Stroudsburg N http://rec-law.us/2kvWmNF  
21 1/20 died 1/27 UT Snowbasin Resort Bluegrass Terrain Park   He fell hard suffered damage to his vertebrae that extended into the base of his brain Skier   M Ogden, UT   http://rec-law.us/2jD3onj  
22 2/4 WV Snowshoe Mountain     went off the trail   Skier 67 M     http://rec-law.us/2kznvzN http://rec-law.us/2kDUz9W
3 2/5   Cannon Mountain Taft Slalom   lost control     57 F Amherst   http://rec-law.us/2jZ34iW http://rec-law.us/2kvXumu
24 2/6 WA 49 Degrees North ski area     Tree Skiiing falling into a tree well Boarder   M     http://rec-law.us/2lyPijQ http://rec-law.us/2kx9IZY
25 2/8 NY Hunter Mountain Annapurna Trail Expert   lost control and slid about 200 feet before going off the trail and striking several trees Skier 58 M Orange County   http://rec-law.us/2lshaWj http://rec-law.us/2kYw5dN
26 2/10 CO Breckenridge Ski Area   Advanced   severe head trauma   26 M Mexico City, MX Y http://rec-law.us/2lvm4G6 http://rec-law.us/2lIhwJk
27 2/11 VT Killington     collided with a tree   Boarder 26 M Toms River, NJ N http://rec-law.us/2kkXYsm http://rec-law.us/2l41Hiz
28 2/11 CT Mohawk Mountain Ski Area     Collison with another skier   Skier   F     http://rec-law.us/2l5nXbM http://rec-law.us/2l5nXbM
29 2/13 VT Stowe Cliff Trail   trapped in deep snow in a tree well hypothermia Boarder 22 M Needham, M   http://rec-law.us/2lhaAW2 http://rec-law.us/2lhaAW2
30 2/15 CO Winter Park Resort Forget-Me-Not   trapped in deep snow in a tree well     17 F     http://rec-law.us/2llpNoO http://rec-law.us/2llpNoO
31           severe head injury     44 M KS   http://rec-law.us/2l7e906  
32 2/17 OH Snow Trails     tried to avoid a collision with a young girl and man in his path Hit a pole

 

  59 M Gahanna, OH   http://rec-law.us/2l7f29b http://rec-law.us/2lWb3xL
33 2/22 NH Cranmore Mountain Resort   Intermediate crashed into a tree.     13 M   Y http://rec-law.us/2mUPNWh http://rec-law.us/2n6261d
34 2/23 CA Northstar     Treewell     43 M New Canaan, CN   http://rec-law.us/2moN72Y http://rec-law.us/2mwrsoJ
35 2/25 CO Purgatory Resort Demon Intermediate struck a tree     34 F Farmington, NM Y http://rec-law.us/2lJqrw5 http://rec-law.us/2lK3mb3
36 2/26 ID Sun Valley Can-Can   Tree well     34 M Meridian   http://rec-law.us/2lc9awN http://rec-law.us/2lcoPMP
37 3/3 Me Sugarloaf Skidder trail Double Black Diamond       24 M Farmington N http://rec-law.us/2n3BYEe http://rec-law.us/2n3BYEe
38 3/3 CO Breckenridge Ski Resort     Broke her leg     15 F Wichita, KS N http://rec-law.us/2meE4C0 http://rec-law.us/2lDPKkK
39     Hunter Mountain Racer’s Edge Trail Double Black Diamond went off the trail and struck several trees     20 M Cream Ridge, NJ   http://rec-law.us/2mx7FZo  
40 3/7 CO Eldora Mountain Resort Mule Shoe black diamond crashing into a tree   Boarder 23 M Aurora, CO Y http://rec-law.us/2mlzcg2 http://rec-law.us/2mH5T8F
41 2/19 CO Buttermilk Mountain   Green hit a tree multiple skull fractures and other various serious injuries   20 M OK N http://rec-law.us/2lRwy34 http://rec-law.us/2n5lLSu
42 3/12 NH Mount Sunapee Skyway trail intermediate         M     http://rec-law.us/2ne4xCJ  
  3/7 OR Mt. Hood Meadows Jacks Woods extremely difficult Hit a tree, found in tree well     57 M Dallas TX   http://rec-law.us/2mWPL20 http://rec-law.us/2nzdvrw
  3/24 CO Loveland Ski Area Lift 8   skied directly into a tree   Ski 35 M Georgetown, CO Y http://rec-law.us/2ocO7Ic  
  3/21 CO Wolf Creek Ski Area Summer Days Intermediate lost a ski, and, as a result, began to “tomahawk” internal injuries, including broken ribs and a collapsed lung Ski 56 M FL Y http://rec-law.us/2oy9qDz http://rec-law.us/2oy9qDz

 

Download a PDF of this chart here. 2016 – 2017 Ski Season Deaths 3.30.17

Our condolences go to the families of the deceased. Our thoughts extend to the families and staff at the ski areas who have to deal with these tragedies.

If you cannot read the entire chart you can download it here.

What do you think? Leave a comment.

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Your Jurisdiction and Venue clause must be relevant to the possible location of the accident. Screw this up and you can void your release as occurred in this ski racing case.

This is not the first decision I’ve read where the United States Ski Association (USSA) had its release laughed out of court. The court found ZERO legal arguments for the jurisdiction and venue clause in the release used.

Kearney, v. Okemo Limited Liability Company, 2016 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 106011

State: Vermont, United States District Court for the District of Vermont

Plaintiff: Brian J Tierney

Defendant: Okemo Limited Liability Company, d/b/a Okemo Mountain Resort, and The United States Ski and Snowboard Association,

Plaintiff Claims: alleging negligent installation of safety netting during a downhill alpine ski race

Defendant Defenses: Release

Holding: for the plaintiff

Year: 2016

The United States Ski Association (USSA) has members sign a release online before they can participate in any USSA as a ski race. Ski areas rely on this release when holding USSA sanctioned races. The USSA release, however, is a poorly written document and time after time the ski areas, and the USSA lose a lawsuit by a plaintiff because they relied on the USSA release.

The number-one  reason why the USSA as a release is thrown out by the courts is the jurisdiction and venue clause. Jurisdiction is the law that will be applied case and venue is the actual location of where the trial will be held. The USSA release says the jurisdiction for any case is Colorado. The problem is unless the accident occurred in Colorado; no other relationship exists between Colorado and the parties to the lawsuit.

The USSA is based, located, in Utah. In this case, the defendant ski area was located in Vermont. There were zero relationships between the USSA in Utah the ski area in Vermont and the injured plaintiff who was from New York, and the state of Colorado.

Consequently, the court throughout the jurisdiction and venue clause and found as 99% of most courts would that the location of the lawsuit should be Vermont, the place where the accident happened.

Vermont, however, does not recognize releases. (See States that do not Support the Use of a Release.).

The plaintiff argued the release was invalid because a copy with his signature could not be produced. The plaintiff signed and agreed to the documentation, including the release when he became a member of the USSA. The plaintiff argued in court that he did not remember signing or agreeing to the release. However, the USSA could  show through their IT expert the only way that the plaintiff could have become a member of the USSA was by signing the release. You either had to click on and accept the release, or you could go no further in signing up to be a member of the USSA.

The plaintiff was injured while competing in amateur downhill ski race at the defendant ski area at Okemo Mountain resort. The USSA sanctioned the race. To be eligible to participate in the race a person had to be a USSA member, had to have conducted a visual inspection of course, and had to have taken at least two official training runs prior to the race.

The defendant filed a motion for summary judgment based on the release. This ruling denied the motion for summary judgment.

Analysis: making sense of the law based on these facts.

The court first commented on the jurisdiction and venue issue.

The release also contained a choice-of-law provision, which stated that it would be “construed in accordance with, and governed by the substantive laws of the State of Colorado, without reference to principles governing choice or conflict of laws.”

The court then went through the various arguments of the plaintiff and defendant concerning the motion to dismiss, first off, with the plaintiff’s argument that he never remembered signing the release could not have signed release. The court termed the online release as a clip wrap release. This means that the release could not have been rejected by the plaintiff because the website only allows you to go forward after clicking yes to the release.

Because the click-wrap technology does not permit the customer to continue to use the website, unless he or she clicks on the required box on the screen, courts have accepted proof of use at the site as evidence of the customer’s agreement.

The court stated that generally clip wrap releases are upheld. The court went through several different decisions where clip-wrap releases had been decided. The court concluded that the plaintiff had to have signed the release because the plaintiff admitted that he had been charged for his USSA membership on his credit card and received an email about his membership from the USSA. “Plaintiff admits that he received a confirmation email from USSA and that his credit card statement reflects a payment for his USSA membership.

The court then went into the choice of law clause. That means the jurisdiction and venue clause. A choice of law clause is not a clause that is controlled strictly by the contract.

Whenever there is a decision based on what law shall apply the law where the accident happened or where the court is sitting is the law that is applied to determine what law will apply. In many cases, such as this one, the choice of law decision leans toward granting the choice of law to the place where the test is being determined.

“The validity of a contractual choice-of-law clause is a threshold question that must be decided not under the law specified in the clause, but under the relevant forum’s choice-of-law rules governing the effectiveness of such clauses.” As this is a diversity action, the court looks to Vermont’s choice-of-law rules to determine which law applies.

A jurisdiction and venue clause is also not solely determined based on the four corners of the document. Meaning, just because you have a jurisdiction and venue clause in the document does not mean that is what is going to be upheld by the court. Here the court applied the choice of laws test as set forth in Vermont to determine what law should apply in governing where the suit in the law to be applied is suit to take place.

Simply put the court found there was no relationship between the choice of law clause in the release and the parties or where the accident occurred. The test for what choice of law applies a substantial relationship test. That means that the law that should be applied should be the one that has the greatest relationship to the parties and or the location of the incident giving rise to the lawsuit. In this case the court found, there was no relationship to the parties of the transaction. Plaintiff was a resident of New York the USSA was a Utah corporation, and the defendant ski area was a defendant was a Vermont location.

The arguments made by the USSA as an aid to justify Colorado’s choice of law clause were just plain weak. They argued that the majority of their races occurred in Colorado and that there was a good chance that the plaintiff would race in Colorado. The court found neither of those arguments to be persuasive.

The chosen state of Colorado has no “substantial relationship” to the parties or the transaction. Plaintiff is a resident of New York. USSA is a Utah corporation and Okemo is a Vermont entity. The incident in question did not occur in Colorado. The only facts Defendants have offered in sup-port of applying Colorado law to this case are: (1) Colorado is home to more USSA member clubs than any other state and hosts the majority of USSA’s major events, and (2) there was a possibility that Plaintiff could have competed in Colorado at some point during the relevant ski season. The court finds that such a tenuous and hypothetical connection does not vest in the state of Colorado a substantial relationship to the parties or specific transaction at issue in this case.

The court did find that Vermont had a substantial and significant interest in the transaction. The defendant was based in Vermont. The accident occurred in Vermont. The plaintiff was issued a lift ticket by the defendant ski area that required all disputes to be litigated in Vermont. The plaintiff participated in the inspection and training runs as well as the race in Vermont.

In contrast, Vermont’s relationship to the parties and transaction is significant. Okemo is a Vermont corporation, the competition was held in Vermont, Plaintiff was issued a lift ticket by Okemo requiring all disputes to be litigated in Vermont, Plaintiff participated in inspection and training runs in Vermont, and Plaintiff’s injury occurred in Vermont.

(Of note is the fact the court looked at the writing on the lift ticket as a quasi-contract. Rarely are lift tickets anything more than simple “signs” providing warnings rather than contracts or quasi contracts. See Lift tickets are not contracts and rarely work as a release in most states.)

The court then took apart the choice of law provision in the USSA release. It found no substantial relationship of the parties to the transaction in Colorado. The minimal facts offered by the USSA to support Colorado did not establish a reasonable basis for choosing Colorado.

The court also reasoned that finding Colorado as the applicable choice of law would violate a fundamental policy of Vermont law, which is releases for skiing or void under Vermont law.

First, applying Colorado law would undoubtedly produce a result contrary to a fundamental policy of Vermont. Whereas exculpatory clauses in ski contracts have been held to be enforceable under Colorado law, courts applying Vermont law consistently hold such re-leases to be void as contrary to important public policies of the state.

The court also found the Vermont had a materially greater interest in case then Colorado. Colorado’s interest in the case is minimal. Vermont had a great interest in applying Vermont law to issues, transactions and accidents that occur in Vermont. Skiing is a significant and important recreational activity in Vermont, and the Vermont Supreme Court has repeatedly stated that they have a significant interest in holding ski resorts responsible for skier safety in Vermont.

Second, Vermont has a “materially greater interest” than Colorado in the determination of this issue.4 Colorado’s interest in this case is minimal. The fact that Plaintiff may have competed there in the course of the relevant ski season and that USSA hosts many events in that state does not create a significant interest in a case concerning a Vermont ski race. Conversely, Vermont’s interest is plain. Vermont has a general interest in having its laws apply to contracts governing transactions taking place within the state. Vermont also has a significant interest in the conduct at issue here. Skiing is an important recreational activity for Vermonters and those visiting the state, and the Vermont Supreme Court has repeatedly noted its interest in holding ski resorts responsible for skier safety.

The court then held the choice of law provision in the USSA release did not control, and the Vermont law would apply to this case.

Under Vermont law releases for skiing activities are unenforceable. (See Federal court voids release in Vermont based on Vermont’s unique view of release law). The Vermont Supreme Court had determined that it was a violation of public policy under Vermont law to allow ski area to use a release to avoid liability for its own negligence. The court used a totality of the circumstances test to make the determination that the ski areas had the greater responsibility and the greater ability to keep its patrons out of harm’s way.

The Court concluded that “ultimately the determination of what constitutes the public interest must be made considering the totality of the circumstances of any given case against the backdrop of current societal expectations.” It then went on to make its public policy determination largely on the basis of two factors derived from the seminal case of Tunkl v. Regents of University of California, 383 P.2d 441 (Cal. 1963): (1) ski areas are open to the general public without regard to special training or ability, and (2) the longstanding rule that premises owners are in the best position to assure for the safety of their visitors.

(Using Tunkl to void a release seems to be an extremely odd reading of Tunkl. The Tunkl decision is a California case setting forth requirements for Assumption of the Risk.)

The court also looked at the difference between skiing in Vermont participating in a ski race. Here too though, the Vermont Supreme Court already ruled. The Vermont Supreme Court found that there was really no difference between ski racing and skiing in Vermont, and the releases would be void in both cases.

There had been Vermont decisions upholding release law based on restricted access to the race or because total control for the majority the control for the welfare of the racers was in the racer’s hands. These decisions concerned motorcycle racing.

The defendant argued that ski racing was much like motorcycle racing in Vermont. However, the court found that although membership in the motorcycle racing was restricted, it was not restricted in the ski racing case. Any person could become a member of the USSA, and any person could race, as long as they inspected the course and made two runs and. That effectively was not a bar to anyone participating in the race.

The Court saw “no salient distinctions between [its case] and making clear that, under Vermont law, ski areas and sport event organizers will not be absolved from liability by virtue of an exculpatory clause even in the context of amateur racing.

The court in evaluating the release law and ski areas in Vermont determined that the cases were based on a premise’s liability argument. Premise’s liability says that the owner of the land has a duty to inform guests of the risks on the land. This responsibility included eliminating any known risks or risk the by the landowner should discover. It did not find in the motorcycle cases that a premise’s liability relationship existed because the risk was largely in control of the racer on the motorcycle.

Consequently, the court ruled that the release was invalid under Vermont law, and dismissed the defendant’s motion for summary judgment.

So Now What?

I suspect that USSA wanted to take advantage of the Colorado Statute that allows a parent to sign away a minor’s right to sue: Colorado Revised Statutes 13-22-107. Colorado’s release law is clearer and there is no issue with a release stopping suits by ski areas. Utah has mixed issues with releases and ski areas. However, to use Colorado as the site of the lawsuit, there must be a nexus to the state of Colorado, not just one created on paper.

Not only must the language stating the jurisdiction and venue be correct; the clause must also contain the reasoning why the jurisdiction and venue should be in a location other than location where the accident happened. In this case that would mean that there was an agreement between the parties that outlined all the reasons why the lawsuit should be brought back to Utah would be the only state, based on the contractual law of Utah.

I doubt there is any way that you could really write a release based on the law of a state that had no relationship, no nexus, to the accident or the parties in the case.

Vermont was the obvious answer, and that is what the court found. They might’ve been able also argued New York law, which would’ve been better than Vermont law. However, that would require them to litigate a case wherever the people who are racing in their events are located.

To be effective the jurisdiction and venue claw must have a nexus to either the parties in the case of the place of the accident occurred. USSA could move to Colorado, and that would provide a much better argument that Colorado law could apply. The USSA could argue that since they’re facing litigation from across the United States that they need to have one law apply to their releases and lawsuits, and that law should be the law where the located.

Whenever you’re stretching the jurisdiction and venue clause, you need to make sure that you incorporate in the clause all the legal reasons for picking the venue where the clause says the accident or location will occur. You just can’t state venue, and jurisdiction will be here.

If you are interested in having me write your release, fill out this Information Form and Contract and send it to me.

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By Recreation Law           Rec-law@recreation-law.com     James H. Moss

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Kearney, v. Okemo Limited Liability Company, 2016 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 106011

Kearney, v. Okemo Limited Liability Company, 2016 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 106011

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Federal court holds that under Minnesota law, a release signed at a ski area did not violate MN Public Policy

Public policy probably cannot be used to defeat a release used by a ski area, because a ski area does not provide a necessity to the public. Even when a Canadian comes to the US to ski.

Myers, v. Lutsen Mountains Corporation, 587 F.3d 891; 2009 U.S. App. LEXIS 25825

State: Minnesota, United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit

Plaintiff: Douglas R. Myers

Defendant: Lutsen Mountains Corporation

Plaintiff Claims: release is void due to public policy grounds

Defendant Defenses: Release

Holding: for the Defendant

Year: 2009

This case arises from a ski accident that occurred Minnesota. The Plaintiff drove two hours from his home in Canada to the defendant ski area. Upon arrival, he signed a release when he purchased a lift ticket. He stated in his deposition that he was an expert skier.

Although he doesn’t remember the facts leading up to his accident, later in the day, he was coming down the hill got air landing in rocks and trees suffering injuries.

The trial court dismissed his claim based on the release, and he appealed to the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals.

Jurisdiction was achieved because the plaintiff was a resident of Canada, and the ski area was located in Minnesota.

Analysis: making sense of the law based on these facts.

The Basis for the plaintiff’s argument was a violation of public policy should throw out the release because he had to drive so far to be able to go skiing. The Plaintiff argued he had no other choice but skis at the defendant ski area because of the distance he drove.

The court first looked at what was required for a release to be valid under Minnesota law. To be valid, Minnesota courts have held that releases could not be ambiguous, they cannot release intentional or willful or wanton acts, and they could not violate public policy.

Exculpatory clauses are enforceable in Minnesota as long as the clause (1) is not ambiguous, (2) does not release intentional, willful, or wanton acts, and (3) does not violate public policy.

The plaintiff first argument to defeat the release was that the release was ambiguous. The plaintiff argued the language of the release, released the defendant from all types of claims not just negligence. The court simply disagreed and found that the coverage of the release only covered simple negligence and was not ambiguous.

The plaintiff next argued that the release violated public policy. The violation of public policy was based on the fact that he had no bargaining power or there was a disparity bargaining power between himself and ski area. He had no option but to ski at the defendant resort.

The appellate court then looked at Minnesota Supreme Court decisions on public policy and found there was a two-factor test.

The Minnesota Supreme Court considers two factors to determine whether exculpatory agreements violate public policy: (1) whether there was a disparity of bargaining power between the parties (a compulsion to sign the contract with an unacceptable provision and a lack of ability to negotiate the elimination of that provision), and (2) the type of service being offered or provided through the contract (one who provides a public or essential service is less likely to be exempted from liability for harm caused by negligently providing that service).

The disparity in bargaining power argument did not fly with the court because the Supreme Court of Minnesota had held that a disparity bargaining power cannot exist if the offered service was available at some other place.

Regarding the first factor, the Minnesota Supreme Court has explained that a disparity of bargaining power does not exist if the offered service is not necessary or if it could have been obtained elsewhere.

The plaintiff argued a different case decided by the Minnesota Supreme Court earlier. The plaintiff paid several thousand dollars to the defendant as a deposit and then had driven several hours to rent a houseboat. The court held that the houseboat was just not a recreational issue but was also a place of accommodation. Innkeepers have always been included in the class of people who could not use a release because they offer a necessity to the public, a place to stay. Consequently, it has been a violation of public policy for an innkeeper to use a release in most states.

Because the houseboat was both recreational and a place of accommodation, there was a disparity bargaining power which was then emphasized by the distance the plaintiff had to travel. Worse, the fact a release is not offered until after he’d already paid his money and driven distance seemed to make the court a little upset and eagerly void the release.

Yang is instructive on this issue. The Minnesota Supreme Court held the rental company was acting both as a resort and as an innkeeper providing a public service when it offered houseboats for daily and weekly rentals. As a matter of public policy, the company could not circumvent its duty to protect guests by requiring them to release the company from liability for its negligence.

The court suggested there was a disparity in bargaining power because the plaintiff had paid a deposit of “a couple thousand” dollars, had not known about the release until he arrived at the place of business, several hours away from the plaintiff’s home, and the next nearest business providing the same service was over 65 miles away, but the essential nature of the service was the dispositive factor in the court’s conclusion that houseboat rental involves a public interest sufficient to invalidate the exculpatory agreement.

The court then looked to whether the service being offered was a necessity and as such a violation of the public policy doctrine which voids releases. Normally, essential public services are such things as utilities, transportation, or accommodations by an innkeeper, not ski areas.

When considering whether a service is public or essential in this context, “courts consider whether it is the type [of service] generally thought suitable for public regulation. Types of services thought to be subject to public regulation have included common carriers, hospitals and doctors, public utilities, innkeepers, public warehousemen, employers and services involving extra-hazardous activities.”

Although the Minnesota Supreme Court had not looked at whether a recreational service could be considered as a necessity, Minnesota appellate courts had found that a recreational opportunity or service was not a necessity and therefore, did not violate public policy. The appellate court in reviewing these decisions held that the Minnesota Supreme Court would rule the same way.

We recognize that skiing is an activity enjoyed by many, but we believe the Minnesota Supreme Court would conclude it is not a necessary or public service and would find the release signed by Myers does not violate public policy.

The Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the trial court’s dismissal of the plaintiff’s complaint based on the release sign.

So Now What?

Although there is nothing distinctive in this decision, it does help you understand how the estate looks at public policy and relations shipped to a recreational activity. Public policy is an argument constantly being used by plaintiffs now days to argue that a release should be invalid. In some cases, the courts accepted that premise, such as in Oregon. (See Oregon Supreme Court finds release signed at ski area is void as a violation of public policy.) However, those cases are still rare.

To combat this way to fight releases you may want to look at your release and identify in the release issues in your state that might make it subject to a public policy argument. Identify those issues and have the signor agree they do not fall within the definition of public policy. A signor agreeing that the release does not violate public policy may not be conclusive in a court of law but will help a court decide that your release for recreational service and not for a necessity of life.

Always remember, waiting until the last minute to present your release to your guests is a way to void your release. Many states have held this and with the internet such an easy way to show your client the release in advance, this argument will take on more weight as time goes by.

If you are interested in having me write your release, fill out this Information Form and Contract and send it to me.

What do you think? Leave a comment.

If you like this let your friends know or post it on FB, Twitter or LinkedIn

Author: Outdoor Recreation Insurance, Risk Management and Law

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Copyright 2017 Recreation Law (720) Edit Law

Email: Rec-law@recreation-law.com

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Facebook: Rec.Law.Now

Facebook Page: Outdoor Recreation & Adventure Travel Law

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Mobile Site: http://m.recreation-law.com

By Recreation Law           Rec-law@recreation-law.com     James H. Moss

#AdventureTourism, #AdventureTravelLaw, #AdventureTravelLawyer, #AttorneyatLaw, #Backpacking, #BicyclingLaw, #Camps, #ChallengeCourse, #ChallengeCourseLaw, #ChallengeCourseLawyer, #CyclingLaw, #FitnessLaw, #FitnessLawyer, #Hiking, #HumanPowered, #HumanPoweredRecreation, #IceClimbing, #JamesHMoss, #JimMoss, #Law, #Mountaineering, #Negligence, #OutdoorLaw, #OutdoorRecreationLaw, #OutsideLaw, #OutsideLawyer, #RecLaw, #Rec-Law, #RecLawBlog, #Rec-LawBlog, #RecLawyer, #RecreationalLawyer, #RecreationLaw, #RecreationLawBlog, #RecreationLawcom, #Recreation-Lawcom, #Recreation-Law.com, #RiskManagement, #RockClimbing, #RockClimbingLawyer, #RopesCourse, #RopesCourseLawyer, #SkiAreas, #Skiing, #SkiLaw, #Snowboarding, #SummerCamp, #Tourism, #TravelLaw, #YouthCamps, #ZipLineLawyer, Ski Area, Public Policy, Ambiguous, Innkeeper, Bargaining Power, Necessity,

 


Myers v. Lutsen Mountains Corporation, 587 F.3d 891; 2009 U.S. App. LEXIS 25825

Myers v. Lutsen Mountains Corporation, 587 F.3d 891; 2009 U.S. App. LEXIS 25825

Douglas R. Myers, Appellant, v. Lutsen Mountains Corporation, Appellee.

No. 09-1184

UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE EIGHTH CIRCUIT

587 F.3d 891; 2009 U.S. App. LEXIS 25825

October 22, 2009, Submitted

November 25, 2009, Filed

PRIOR HISTORY:  [**1]

Appeal from the United States District Court for the District of Minnesota.

CASE SUMMARY:

PROCEDURAL POSTURE: Plaintiff skier sued defendant ski resort operator, asserting personal injury claims. The United States District Court for the District of Minnesota granted summary judgment in favor of the resort operator based on a release. The skier appealed.

OVERVIEW: The skier purchased a lift ticket at the ski resort and signed a written release of liability waiver. The skier was injured when he lofted into an area containing rocks and small trees. The district court found that the release signed by the skier precluded him from pursuing his claims. The appellate court determined that the release was enforceable under Minnesota law because (1) the language of the release expressly and unambiguously excluded from its coverage claims arising from reckless or intentional acts, (2) the release was not ambiguous, (3) regarding the skier’s argument that the release violated public policy because he had no bargaining power, there was no disparity of bargaining power since the service provided by the resort operator was not necessary and the skier could have gone elsewhere to ski, (4) regarding whether the release violated public policy, the appellate court predicted the Minnesota Supreme Court would hold skiing was not a public or essential service, and (5) the release was not invalidated by Minnesota’s Plain Language Contract Act and Minnesota’s Consumer Credit Sales Act.

COUNSEL: For Douglas R. Myers, Plaintiff – Appellant: James Walter Balmer, Stephanie M. Balmer, FALSANI & BALMER, Duluth, MN.

For Lutsen Mountains Corporation, Defendant – Appellee: Gregory Aaron Bromen, Brian N. Johnson, HALLELAND & LEWIS, Minneapolis, MN.

JUDGES: Before COLLOTON and BENTON, Circuit Judges, and PIERSOL 1, District Judge.

The Honorable Lawrence L. Piersol, United States District Court for the District of South Dakota, sitting by designation.

OPINION BY: Lawrence L. Piersol

OPINION

[*892]  PIERSOL, District Judge.

Douglas R. Myers (“Myers”) appeals an adverse grant of summary judgment. Myers was injured while skiing at Lutsen Mountains, a ski resort operated by Lutsen Mountains Corporation (“Lutsen”). He sued Lutsen, and the district court 2 granted Lutsen’s motion for summary judgment, holding that a release signed by Myers precluded him from pursuing his claims. This appeal followed. For the reasons set forth below, we affirm the judgment of the district court.

2 The Honorable John F. Forster, Jr., United States Magistrate Judge for the Eastern District of Arkansas, to whom the case was referred for decision by consent of the parties pursuant  [**2] to 28 U.S.C. § 636(c).

I

[HN1] We review de novo a district court’s grant or denial of summary judgment.  [*893]  Med. Liab. Mut. Ins. Co. v. Alan Curtis LLC, 519 F.3d 466, 471 (8th Cir. 2008). Summary judgment is appropriate when the record, viewed in the light most favorable to the non-moving party, demonstrates that there is no genuine issue of material fact and the moving party is entitled to judgment as a matter of law. Id.; Fed.R.Civ.P. 56(c).

II

The facts of this case are essentially undisputed. On December 28, 2006, Myers and two of his friends left their homes in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada, and drove approximately two hours to Lutsen, Minnesota. The three friends arrived in time to buy ski tickets before 9:30 a.m., when the ski lifts open at Lutsen. Myers has no memory of that day, but he agrees that he purchased a lift ticket and signed a written release of liability waiver. The release includes the following language:

PLEASE READ CAREFULLY BEFORE SIGNING. THIS IS A RELEASE OF LIABILITY AND WAIVER OF CERTAIN LEGAL RIGHTS.

I understand that skiing in its various forms, including snowboarding, involves risks, dangers and hazards that may cause serious personal injury or death and that injuries  [**3] are a common and ordinary occurrence. Risks include, but are not limited to, changes in terrain, weather and snow surfaces, ice, moguls, bare spots, debris, fences, posts, trees, lift equipment and towers, rope tows, light poles, signs, buildings, roads and walkways, ramps, half-pipes, padded and non-padded barriers, jumps and other terrain features, grooming equipment, snowmobiles, collisions with other persons and other natural and man-made hazards. I acknowledge that the risks in the sport of Alpine skiing can be greatly reduced by taking lessons, abiding by the Skier Responsibility Code, (known as Your Responsibility Code), and using common sense.

In consideration of the purchase of a lift ticket for Lutsen Mountains and use of its facilities, I RELEASE AND FULLY DISCHARGE Lutsen Mountains Corporation, its owners, officers, shareholders, agents and employees from any liability resulting from any personal injury to myself, including death, or damage to my property which is caused by the BREACH OF ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTY or the NEGLIGENT ACT OR OMISSION of Lutsen Mountains Corporation, its owners, officers, shareholders, agents or employees in the design, location, construction,  [**4] inspection, maintenance and repair of the conditions on or about the premises or ski area or the operations of the ski area, including but not limited to:

. the design, location, construction, inspection, maintenance and repair of trails, ski runs, slopes, ramps, half-pipes and other terrain features;

. grooming, snow-making, snowmobile operation, ski-lifts, rope tows and ski-lift and rope tow loading and unloading operations;

. padding or non-padding of natural and man-made obstacles and hazards;

. posting or failure to post warnings, signs, fences or other barriers;

. classification and labeling of trails and ski runs; or

. maintaining or modifying variations in the surface, steepness and pitch of trails, ski runs, slopes, ramps and terrain features.

I accept full responsibility for any injuries or damages which may result from the participation in the sport, and it is  [*894]  my intent to HOLD HARMLESS Lutsen Mountains Corporation, its owners, officers, shareholders, agents or employees for any injury sustained by me, including death, while participating in the sport. I agree not to bring any action or suit against Lutsen Mountains Corporation, its owners, officers, shareholders, agents or employees  [**5] for any injury or damage.

In accordance with Minnesota law, nothing in this Release of Liability should be construed as releasing, discharging or waiving any claims I may have for reckless or intentional acts on the part of Lutsen Mountains Corporation, or its owners, officers, shareholders, agents or employees.

I HAVE CAREFULLY READ THIS RELEASE OF LIABILITY AND UNDERSTAND ITS CONTENTS. I AM AWARE THAT BY SIGNING THIS RELEASE OF LIABILITY, I AM WAIVING CERTAIN LEGAL RIGHTS, INCLUDING THE RIGHT TO SUE LUTSEN MOUNTAINS CORPORATION, ITS OWNERS, OFFICERS, SHAREHOLDERS, AGENTS OR EMPLOYEES FOR CERTAIN CLAIMS.

CAUTION: READ BEFORE SIGNING! THIS DOCUMENT AFFECTS YOUR LEGAL RIGHTS AND WILL BAR YOUR RIGHT TO SUE!

At the bottom of the release, Myers printed his name, signed the document, and listed his age as 32.

At approximately 3:30 p.m. on December 28, 2006, Myers, a self-described expert skier at the time of the accident, was on Lutsen’s Lower Meadows trail when he skied over an edge of the course. At oral argument, Myers’ counsel indicated that this is an intermediate slope. Myers apparently lofted into an area containing rocks and small trees, and he was injured. He filed a personal injury  [**6] lawsuit against Lutsen in Minnesota district court based on diversity jurisdiction. The parties filed cross-motions for summary judgment. Concluding that the release Myers signed is valid under Minnesota law, the district court granted Lutsen’s motion for summary judgment and dismissed Myers’ complaint with prejudice. On appeal, Myers argues that the district court erred by holding the release is enforceable under Minnesota law.

III

Minnesota law applies in this diversity case. See Integrity Floorcovering, Inc. v. Broan-Nutone, LLC, 521 F.3d 914, 917 (8th Cir. 2008).  [HN2] Exculpatory clauses are enforceable in Minnesota as long as the clause (1) is not ambiguous, (2) does not release intentional, willful, or wanton acts, and (3) does not violate public policy. See Schlobohm v. Spa Petite, Inc., 326 N.W.2d 920, 923 (Minn. 1982).

Myers first argues the release is ambiguous because it could be interpreted as waiving Lutsen’s liability for all types of claims and not just negligence. We disagree. The language of the release expressly and unambiguously excludes from its coverage claims arising from reckless or intentional acts, and the district court correctly found the release is not ambiguous.

Myers  [**7] next asserts the release violates public policy because he had no bargaining power; he had to sign the release or not ski at Lutsen.  [HN3] The Minnesota Supreme Court considers two factors to determine whether exculpatory agreements violate public policy: (1) whether there was a disparity of bargaining power between the parties (a compulsion to sign the contract with an unacceptable provision  [*895]  and a lack of ability to negotiate the elimination of that provision), and (2) the type of service being offered or provided through the contract (one who provides a public or essential service is less likely to be exempted from liability for harm caused by negligently providing that service). See Schlobohm, 326 N.W.2d at 923. Regarding the first factor, the Minnesota Supreme Court has explained that a disparity of bargaining power does not exist if the offered service is not necessary or if it could have been obtained elsewhere. See id. at 925. In Schlobohm, the court concluded there was no disparity in bargaining power when Schlobohm voluntarily joined a fitness center and signed a contract containing an exculpatory clause because there was no showing that the center’s services were necessary or that  [**8] the services could not have been obtained elsewhere. See id.

Relying primarily on Yang v. Voyagaire Houseboats, Inc., 701 N.W.2d 783 (Minn. 2005), Myers contends a disparity in bargaining power existed because it would have taken him over two hours to drive from Lutsen to the closest ski hill. In Yang, the Minnesota Supreme Court invalidated an exculpatory clause in the context of a houseboat rental agreement. See id. at 786. The court suggested there was a disparity in bargaining power because the plaintiff had paid a deposit of “a couple thousand” dollars, had not known about the release until he arrived at the place of business, several hours away from the plaintiff’s home, and the next nearest business providing the same services was over 65 miles away, see id. at 789 n. 3, but the essential nature of the service was the dispositive factor in the court’s conclusion that houseboat rental involves a public interest sufficient to invalidate the exculpatory agreement. See id. at 789. Yang lends little support to Myers’ argument that a disparity of bargaining power existed in this case. As did the Minnesota Supreme Court in Schlobohm, we find no disparity of bargaining power because  [**9] the service provided by Lutsen is not necessary, and Myers could have gone elsewhere to ski.

This brings us to the second factor considered by Minnesota courts to determine whether a release violates public policy: the type of service provided. Myers does not argue that Lutsen provides a public or essential service, and  [HN4] we predict the Minnesota Supreme Court would hold skiing is not a public or essential service. When considering whether a service is public or essential in this context, “courts consider whether it is the type [of service] generally thought suitable for public regulation. Types of services thought to be subject to public regulation have included common carriers, hospitals and doctors, public utilities, innkeepers, public warehousemen, employers and services involving extra-hazardous activities.” Schlobohm, 326 N.W.2d at 925. In Schlobohm, the Minnesota Supreme Court held the services furnished by the health club are not the type generally thought suitable for public regulation and do not involve an activity of great importance or of practical necessity. See id. at 925-26.

Yang is instructive on this issue. The Minnesota Supreme Court held the rental company was acting  [**10] both as a resort and as an innkeeper providing a public service when it offered houseboats for daily and weekly rentals. See Yang, 701 N.W.2d at 790. As a matter of public policy, the company could not circumvent its duty to protect guests by requiring them to release the company from liability for its negligence. See id. at 791. The court distinguished these types of  [HN5] services from those involving recreational activities which courts generally have held “do not  [*896]  fall within any of the categories where the public interest is involved.” Id. at 789 (quoting Schlobohm, 326 N.W.2d at 925-26). The court specifically rejected the argument that renting houseboats is a purely recreational activity and is not a necessary or public service. See id. at 790.

[HN6] Whether recreational activities involve a public interest is a question the Minnesota Supreme Court has not yet squarely addressed. If the Minnesota Supreme Court has not spoken on an issue, the federal court must determine what decision the state court would make if faced with the same facts and issue. See Kovarik v. American Family Ins. Group, 108 F.3d 962, 964 (8th Cir. 1997). The federal court should consider relevant state court decisions,  [**11] “analogous decisions, considered dicta, . . . and any other reliable data.” Id. at 964 (quoting Ventura v. Titan Sports, Inc., 65 F.3d 725, 729 (8th Cir. 1995)). The Minnesota Court of Appeals has upheld liability releases in contracts for various types of recreational activities, finding the activities are not of great importance to the public or of practical necessity to anyone. See, e.g., Beehner v. Cragun Corp., 636 N.W.2d 821, 828 (Minn. App. 2001) (horseback riding); Malecha v. St. Croix Valley Skydiving Club, Inc., 392 N.W.2d 727, 731 (Minn. App. 1986) (sky diving). We recognize that skiing is an activity enjoyed by many, but we believe the Minnesota Supreme Court would conclude it is not a necessary or public service and would find the release signed by Myers does not violate public policy.

Finally, we disagree with Myers’ arguments that the release is invalidated by two Minnesota statutes, the Plain Language Contract Act and the Consumer Credit Sales Act.

Myers does not contest that the release, if valid, encompasses his claims against Lutsen. The release is valid under Minnesota law and, thus, we affirm the district court’s summary judgment for Lutsen.

 


2016-2017 In bound ski/board fatalities

This list is not guaranteed to be accurate. The information is found from web searches and news dispatches. Those references are part of the chart. If you have a source for information on any fatality please leave a comment or contact me. Thank you.

If this information is incorrect or incomplete please let me know.  This is up to date as of March 15, 2017. Thanks.

Skiing and Snowboarding are still safer than being in your kitchen or bathroom. This information is not to scare you away from skiing but to help you understand the risks.

Red type is natural or medical conditions that occurred inbounds on the slopes

Green Type is Fatalities while sledding at the Resort

Blue Type is a Lift Accidents

Purple Type is Employee or Ski Patroller

# Date State Resort Where Trail Difficulty How Cause of death Ski/ Board Age Sex Home town Helmet Reference Ref # 2
1 11/26 CO Keystone Elk Run Intermediate Hit lift tower at high speed   Skier 18 M LA Y http://rec-law.us/2h2ul1Z http://rec-law.us/2gXbKA8
2 12/10 VT Killington Ski Area   Intermediate Found dead   Skier 65 M Lagrangeville, NY   http://rec-law.us/2hml9oW http://rec-law.us/2gHi01C
3 12/11 CA Northstar Village Run Expert (off duty ski instructor) hit several rocks and crashed into a creek avoiding other skier   Skier 35 M Incline Village, NV & Kings Beach Y http://rec-law.us/2hwJAAy http://rec-law.us/2gwnmJQ
4 12/11 NV Alpental Ski area     Tree Well death was asphyxia due to immersion in snow Skier 45 M     http://rec-law.us/2hqZSb9 http://rec-law.us/2hqZSb9
5 12/11 NV Mt. Rose The Chutes   Avalanche in closed run   Skier 60 M     http://rec-law.us/2gHp1iZ http://rec-law.us/2hAAxOP
6 12/12 VT Killington Ski Area         Skier 80 M Wappingers Falls, NY   http://rec-law.us/2hqD3UN  
7 12/19 CO Breckenridge Alpine Alley   Hit a tree accidental blunt force trauma   48 M Longmont CO Y http://rec-law.us/2hckGX4 http://rec-law.us/2ialr2Y
8 12/29 CO Ski Granby Ranch Quick Draw Express lift   Fell out of chair lift traumatic rupture of the aorta and blunt force trauma to the torso Skier 40 F San Antonio, TX   http://rec-law.us/2ixiwhN http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation-now/2016/12/29/mom-dies-daughters-hurt-chairlift/95988502/
9 12/31 UT Snowbasin     Hit tree   Skier 24 M Ogden, UT Y http://rec-law.us/2iV7Qg8 http://rec-law.us/2hQsaKC
10 1/1/17 MI Crystal Mountain Penny Lane Intermediate lost control and veered into a tree crash cracked Delaney’s helmet and caused a serious brain injury Skier 10 F La Grange, IL Y http://rec-law.us/2hSv1pC http://rec-law.us/2hSz19J
11 1/1 OR Mt. Baker     Found slumped over snowmobile     67 M     http://rec-law.us/2iIa5mA  
12 1/7 VT Killington Skyeship Gondola   Found on Floor Fall     M     http://rec-law.us/2iWImP5  
13 1/13 CO Breckenridge   Expert Found by ski patrol Skull Fracture   47 M Longmot, CO N http://rec-law.us/2jZgniK http://rec-law.us/2jkovaw
14 1/16 VT Sugar Bush Mount Ellen   Hit Tree Hampden Skier 39 M Hampden, MA N http://rec-law.us/2jqt6un http://rec-law.us/2jqt6un
15   PA Shawnee Mountain Ski Area     lost control and struck an orange safety fence     15 F Singapore   http://rec-law.us/2jSL1X9 http://rec-law.us/2j38nt0
16 1/14 UT Brighton Ski Resort     hit a tree   Boarder 35 M Millcreek, UT   http://rec-law.us/2jsJevi http://rec-law.us/2jGiFA6
17 1/14 NY Belleayre Mountain Ski Center Wanatuska Trail Expert     Boarding 25 M Centersport, NY   http://rec-law.us/2jDcHlZ http://rec-law.us/2jGKr1J
18 1/24 CA Squaw Valley Gold Coast Ridge   denotation of an explosive charge     42 M Olympic Valley, CA   http://rec-law.us/2jXfW7Y http://rec-law.us/2kqBruQ
19 1/26 WA Stevens Pass Mountain Resort Mill Valley side Expert found the man unresponsive and not breathing     55 M Woodinville, WA   http://rec-law.us/2kBlZQD  
20 1/26 PA Camelback Ski Resort Hump Expert he went off the trail   Boarding 21 M Stroudsburg N http://rec-law.us/2kvWmNF  
21 1/20 died 1/27 UT Snowbasin Resort Bluegrass Terrain Park   He fell hard suffered damage to his vertebrae that extended into the base of his brain Skier   M Ogden, UT   http://rec-law.us/2jD3onj  
22 2/4 WV Snowshoe Mountain     went off the trail   Skier 67 M     http://rec-law.us/2kznvzN http://rec-law.us/2kDUz9W
3 2/5   Cannon Mountain Taft Slalom   lost control     57 F Amherst   http://rec-law.us/2jZ34iW http://rec-law.us/2kvXumu
24 2/6 WA 49 Degrees North ski area     Tree Skiiing falling into a tree well Boarder   M     http://rec-law.us/2lyPijQ http://rec-law.us/2kx9IZY
25 2/8 NY Hunter Mountain Annapurna Trail Expert   lost control and slid about 200 feet before going off the trail and striking several trees Skier 58 M Orange County   http://rec-law.us/2lshaWj http://rec-law.us/2kYw5dN
26 2/10 CO Breckenridge Ski Area   Advanced   severe head trauma   26 M Mexico City, MX Y http://rec-law.us/2lvm4G6 http://rec-law.us/2lIhwJk
27 2/11 VT Killington     collided with a tree   Boarder 26 M Toms River, NJ N http://rec-law.us/2kkXYsm http://rec-law.us/2l41Hiz
28 2/11 CT Mohawk Mountain Ski Area     Collison with another skier   Skier   F     http://rec-law.us/2l5nXbM http://rec-law.us/2l5nXbM
29 2/13 VT Stowe Cliff Trail   trapped in deep snow in a tree well hypothermia Boarder 22 M Needham, M   http://rec-law.us/2lhaAW2 http://rec-law.us/2lhaAW2
30 2/15 CO Winter Park Resort Forget-Me-Not   trapped in deep snow in a tree well     17 F     http://rec-law.us/2llpNoO http://rec-law.us/2llpNoO
31           severe head injury     44 M KS   http://rec-law.us/2l7e906  
32 2/17 OH Snow Trails     tried to avoid a collision with a young girl and man in his path Hit a pole

 

  59 M Gahanna, OH   http://rec-law.us/2l7f29b http://rec-law.us/2lWb3xL
33 2/22 NH Cranmore Mountain Resort   Intermediate crashed into a tree.     13 M   Y http://rec-law.us/2mUPNWh http://rec-law.us/2n6261d
34 2/23 CA Northstar     Treewell     43 M New Canaan, CN   http://rec-law.us/2moN72Y http://rec-law.us/2mwrsoJ
35 2/25 CO Purgatory Resort Demon Intermediate struck a tree     34 F Farmington, NM Y http://rec-law.us/2lJqrw5 http://rec-law.us/2lK3mb3
36 2/26 ID Sun Valley Can-Can   Tree well     34 M Meridian   http://rec-law.us/2lc9awN http://rec-law.us/2lcoPMP
37 3/3 ME Sugarloaf Skidder trail Double Black Diamond       24 M Farmington N http://rec-law.us/2n3BYEe http://rec-law.us/2n3BYEe
38 3/3 CO Breckenridge Ski Resort     Broke her leg     15 F Wichita, KS N http://rec-law.us/2meE4C0 http://rec-law.us/2lDPKkK
39     Hunter Mountain Racer’s Edge Trail Double Black Diamond went off the trail and struck several trees     20 M Cream Ridge, NJ   http://rec-law.us/2mx7FZo  
40 3/7 CO Eldora Mountain Resort Mule Shoe black diamond crashing into a tree   Boarder 23 M Aurora, CO Y http://rec-law.us/2mlzcg2 http://rec-law.us/2mH5T8F
41 2/19 CO Buttermilk Mountain   Green hit a tree multiple skull fractures and other various serious injuries   20 M OK N http://rec-law.us/2lRwy34 http://rec-law.us/2n5lLSu
42 3/12   Mount Sunapee Skyway trail intermediate         M     http://rec-law.us/2ne4xCJ  

 

Download a PDF of this chart here. 2016 – 2017 Ski Season Deaths 3.15.17

Our condolences go to the families of the deceased. Our thoughts extend to the families and staff at the ski areas who have to deal with these tragedies.

If you cannot read the entire chart you can download it here.

What do you think? Leave a comment.

If you like this let your friends know or post it on FB, Twitter or LinkedIn

Copyright 2017 Recreation Law (720) Edit Law

Email: Rec-law@recreation-law.com

Google+: +Recreation

Twitter: RecreationLaw

Facebook: Rec.Law.Now

Facebook Page: Outdoor Recreation & Adventure Travel Law

Blog: www.recreation-law.com

Mobile Site: http://m.recreation-law.com

#AdventureTourism, #AdventureTravelLaw, #AdventureTravelLawyer, #AttorneyatLaw, #Backpacking, #BicyclingLaw, #Camps, #ChallengeCourse, #ChallengeCourseLaw, #ChallengeCourseLawyer, #CyclingLaw, #FitnessLaw, #FitnessLawyer, #Hiking, #HumanPowered, #HumanPoweredRecreation, #IceClimbing, #JamesHMoss, #JimMoss, #Law, #Mountaineering, #Negligence, #OutdoorLaw, #OutdoorRecreationLaw, #OutsideLaw, #OutsideLawyer, #RecLaw, #Rec-Law, #RecLawBlog, #Rec-LawBlog, #RecLawyer, RecreationalLawyer, #RecreationLaw, #RecreationLawBlog, #RecreationLawcom, #Recreation-Lawcom, #Recreation-Law.com, #RiskManagement, #RockClimbing, #RockClimbingLawyer, #RopesCourse, #RopesCourseLawyer, #SkiAreas, #Skiing, #SkiLaw, #Snowboarding, #SummerCamp, #Tourism, #TravelLaw, #YouthCamps, #ZipLineLawyer, Skiing, Snowboarding, Fatality, Ski Area, Tree Well, Avalanche, In Bounds, Collision, Ski Instructor, Natural Causes, Northstar, Killington, Alpental, Mt. Rose, Keystone, Breckenridge, Northstar, 49 Degrees North, Hunter Mountain, Cannon Mountain, Snowshoe Mountain, Snowbasin Resort,

 


2016-2017 In bound ski/board fatalities

This list is not guaranteed to be accurate. The information is found from web searches and news dispatches. Those references are part of the chart. If you have a source for information on any fatality please leave a comment or contact me. Thank you.

If this information is incorrect or incomplete please let me know.  This is up to date as of February 27, 2017. Thanks.

Skiing and Snowboarding are still safer than being in your kitchen or bathroom. This information is not to scare you away from skiing but to help you understand the risks.

Red type is natural or medical conditions that occurred inbounds on the slopes

Green Type is Fatalities while sledding at the Resort

Blue Type is a Lift Accidents

Purple Type is Employee or Ski Patroller

 

# Date State Resort Where Trail Difficulty How Cause of death Ski/ Board Age Sex Home town Helmet Reference Ref # 2
1 11/26 CO Keystone Elk Run Intermediate Hit lift tower at high speed Skier 18 M LA Y http://rec-law.us/2h2ul1Z http://rec-law.us/2gXbKA8
2 12/10 VT Killington Ski Area   Intermediate Found dead   Skier 65 M Lagrangeville, NY   http://rec-law.us/2hml9oW http://rec-law.us/2gHi01C
3 12/11 CA Northstar Village Run Expert (off duty ski instructor) hit several rocks and crashed into a creek avoiding other skier Skier 35 M Incline Village, NV & Kings Beach Y http://rec-law.us/2hwJAAy http://rec-law.us/2gwnmJQ
4 12/11 NV Alpental Ski area Tree Well death was asphyxia due to immersion in snow Skier 45 M http://rec-law.us/2hqZSb9 http://rec-law.us/2hqZSb9
5 12/11 NV Mt. Rose The Chutes Avalanche in closed run Skier 60 M http://rec-law.us/2gHp1iZ http://rec-law.us/2hAAxOP
6 12/12 VT Killington Ski Area         Skier 80 M Wappingers Falls, NY   http://rec-law.us/2hqD3UN  
7 12/19 CO Breckenridge Alpine Alley Hit a tree accidental blunt force trauma 48 M Longmont CO Y http://rec-law.us/2hckGX4 http://rec-law.us/2ialr2Y
8 12/29 CO Ski Granby Ranch Quick Draw Express lift Fell out of chair lift traumatic rupture of the aorta and blunt force trauma to the torso Skier 40 F San Antonio, TX http://rec-law.us/2ixiwhN http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation-now/2016/12/29/mom-dies-daughters-hurt-chairlift/95988502/
9 12/31 UT Snowbasin Hit tree Skier 24 M Ogden, UT Y http://rec-law.us/2iV7Qg8 http://rec-law.us/2hQsaKC
10 1/1/17 MI Crystal Mountain Penny Lane Intermediate lost control and veered into a tree crash cracked Delaney’s helmet and caused a serious brain injury Skier 10 F La Grange, IL Y http://rec-law.us/2hSv1pC http://rec-law.us/2hSz19J
11 1/1 OR Mt. Baker     Found slumped over snowmobile     67 M     http://rec-law.us/2iIa5mA  
12 1/7 VT Killington Skyeship Gondola Found on Floor Fall M http://rec-law.us/2iWImP5
13 1/13 CO Breckenridge Expert Found by ski patrol Skull Fracture 47 M Longmot, CO N http://rec-law.us/2jZgniK http://rec-law.us/2jkovaw
14 1/16 VT Sugar Bush Mount Ellen Hit Tree Hampden Skier 39 M Hampden, MA N http://rec-law.us/2jqt6un http://rec-law.us/2jqt6un
15 PA Shawnee Mountain Ski Area lost control and struck an orange safety fence 15 F Singapore http://rec-law.us/2jSL1X9 http://rec-law.us/2j38nt0
16 1/14 UT Brighton Ski Resort hit a tree Boarder 35 M Millcreek, UT http://rec-law.us/2jsJevi http://rec-law.us/2jGiFA6
17 1/14 NY Belleayre Mountain Ski Center Wanatuska Trail Expert Boarding 25 M Centersport, NY http://rec-law.us/2jDcHlZ http://rec-law.us/2jGKr1J
18 1/24 CA Squaw Valley Gold Coast Ridge   denotation of an explosive charge     42 M Olympic Valley, CA   http://rec-law.us/2jXfW7Y http://rec-law.us/2kqBruQ
19 1/26 WA Stevens Pass Mountain Resort Mill Valley side Expert found the man unresponsive and not breathing 55 M Woodinville, WA http://rec-law.us/2kBlZQD
20 1/26 PA Camelback Ski Resort Hump Expert he went off the trail Boarding 21 M Stroudsburg N http://rec-law.us/2kvWmNF
21 1/20 died 1/27 UT Snowbasin Resort Bluegrass Terrain Park He fell hard suffered damage to his vertebrae that extended into the base of his brain Skier M Ogden, UT http://rec-law.us/2jD3onj
22 2/4 WV Snowshoe Mountain went off the trail Skier 67 M http://rec-law.us/2kznvzN http://rec-law.us/2kDUz9W
3 2/5 Cannon Mountain Taft Slalom lost control 57 F Amherst http://rec-law.us/2jZ34iW http://rec-law.us/2kvXumu
24 2/6 WA 49 Degrees North ski area Tree Skiiing falling into a tree well Boarder M http://rec-law.us/2lyPijQ http://rec-law.us/2kx9IZY
25 2/8 NY Hunter Mountain Annapurna Trail Expert lost control and slid about 200 feet before going off the trail and striking several trees Skier 58 M Orange County http://rec-law.us/2lshaWj http://rec-law.us/2kYw5dN
26 2/10 CO Breckenridge Ski Area Advanced severe head trauma 26 M Mexico City, MX Y http://rec-law.us/2lvm4G6 http://rec-law.us/2lIhwJk
27 2/11 VT Killington collided with a tree Boarder 26 M Toms River, NJ N http://rec-law.us/2kkXYsm http://rec-law.us/2l41Hiz
28 2/11 CT Mohawk Mountain Ski Area Collison with another skier Skier F http://rec-law.us/2l5nXbM http://rec-law.us/2l5nXbM
29 2/13 VT Stowe Cliff Trail trapped in deep snow in a tree well hypothermia Boarder 22 M Needham, M http://rec-law.us/2lhaAW2 http://rec-law.us/2lhaAW2
30 2/15 CO Winter Park Resort Forget-Me-Not trapped in deep snow in a tree well 17 F http://rec-law.us/2llpNoO http://rec-law.us/2llpNoO
31 severe head injury 44 M KS http://rec-law.us/2l7e906
32 2/17 OH Snow Trails tried to avoid a collision with a young girl and man in his path Hit a pole

 

59 M Gahanna, OH http://rec-law.us/2l7f29b http://rec-law.us/2lWb3xL
33 2/23 CA Northstar Treewell 43 M New Canaan, CN http://rec-law.us/2moN72Y http://rec-law.us/2mwrsoJ
34 2/25 CO Purgatory Resort Demon Intermediate struck a tree 34 F Farmington, NM Y http://rec-law.us/2lJqrw5 http://rec-law.us/2lK3mb3

Our condolences go to the families of the deceased. Our thoughts extend to the families and staff at the ski areas who have to deal with these tragedies.

If you cannot read the entire chart you can download it here.   2016-2017-ski-season-deaths-3-1-17

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