Stand Up Paddleboard case. Rental company not liable for death of renter who could not swim.

Release and assumption of the risk both used to defeat plaintiff’s claims.

Citation: Kabogoza v. Blue Water Boating, Inc., et al

State: California, United States District Court, E.D. California

Plaintiff: Mary Bacia Kabogoza, on behalf of herself and the Estate of Davies Khallit Kabogoza

Defendant: Blue Water Boating, Inc., Skip Abed and ten “Roe” defendants

Plaintiff Claims: wrongful death, negligence and gross negligence

Defendant Defenses: Assumption of the Risk and Release

Holding: For the Defendant

Year: 2019

Summary

Renter of a stand-up paddleboard drowned after falling off his board. He did not use the free leash and wore his inflatable PFD incorrectly so it did not work.

Court found the plaintiff assumed the risk and had signed a release preventing his survivors from suing.

Facts

In April 2017, Davies Kabogoza and his friend, Laura Tandy, rented stand-up paddleboards from Defendant Blue Water Boating. Kabogoza had rented paddleboards from this rental company before. He was familiar with the staff, but had never told them that he could not swim.

Kabogoza and Tandy signed a rental agreement before taking out the paddleboards. The one-page agreement included several general and SUP-specific safety rules, along with a release of liability. Upon signing the agreement, the rental company-per Kabogoza’s request-gave him and Tandy intermediate-level paddleboards and belt-pack flotation devices. Regular life vests were also available, but Defendants allow their customers to choose between the two options. Belt-pack flotation devices are “very popular” among paddle boarders, but customers often wear them incorrectly, with the flotation portion of the device facing backwards. Id. Plaintiff alleges that Kabogoza was wearing his incorrectly at the time of the accident.

Defendants also gave its customers the option of using a paddleboard leash. Defendant Skip Abed, the owner of Blue Water Boating, told an investigator that 9 out of 10 times, customers do not want a leash. Neither Kabogoza nor Tandy used a leash while paddleboarding.

Shortly after Kabogoza and Tandy began using their paddleboards in the Santa Barbara Harbor, the wind increased, and the water became choppy. Tandy was in front of Kabogoza when she heard a splash behind her. When she turned around, she saw that Kabogoza had fallen off his board, and was struggling to keep his head above water. Tandy was unable to reach Kabogoza and prevent him from drowning. A dive team later found his body at the bottom of the ocean in about 30 feet of water. Id. When the divers found him, Kabogoza’s flotation device was attached to his waist, but in the backwards position. An inspection revealed that the device was in “good working order.”

The defendants filed a motion to dismiss, which was granted by the district court.

Analysis: making sense of the law based on these facts.

The court first looked at the gross negligence claim of the plaintiffs. Under California law, gross negligence is defined as “the want of even scant care or an extreme departure from the ordinary standard of conduct.” The court then went on to reiterate the California Supreme Court issue of disposing of gross negligence claims that do not meet the definition.

The court then looked at the defense of assumption of the risk. The plaintiff’s plead admiralty and state law claims in this lawsuit. Each has different types of claims and different defenses and defenses to state law claims do not work in admiralty cases and vice versa. The court waded through the differences in each of the defenses presented by the defendant.

Assumption of the risk is not a defense to an admiralty law claim. Assumption of the risk is a defense to state law claims. The court then went back to the gross negligence claim and found the facts plead by the plaintiff did not rise to the level of gross negligence.

The next claim of the plaintiff’s was a wrongful-death claim. A wrongful-death claim is a claim of the survivors of the deceased. However, any defense to a claim by the deceased is a bar to a wrongful-death claim.

Because the rental agreement signed by the deceased included release language, it was a bar to the wrongful-death claim of the deceased survivors.

So Now What?

First, this is a stand up paddleboard rental; however, the court did not treat it any differently then the rental of any other boat.

Knowledge that renters might wear they PFD incorrectly is disconcerting. I would counsel clients to at least post a sign or something showing people the proper way to wear their PFD’s.

I also think a leash would be required to make sure the boards come back. Fall off your board and the currents will send it away faster than you can swim and the rental company has lost another SUP.

However, tragic accident, legally the result was correct I believe.

What do you think? Leave a comment.

Copyright 2019 Recreation Law (720) 334 8529

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Kabogoza v. Blue Water Boating, Inc., et al.,

Kabogoza v. Blue Water Boating, Inc., et al.,

Mary Bacia Kabogoza, on behalf of herself and the Estate of Davies Khallit Kabogoza, Plaintiff,

v.

Blue Water Boating, Inc., et al., Defendants.

No. 2:18-cv-02722-JAM-KJN

United States District Court, E.D. California

April 5, 2019

ORDER GRANTING DEFENDANTS’ MOTION TO DISMISS AND DECLARING PLAINTIFFS’ CROSS-MOTION FOR SUMMARY JUDGMENT MOOT

JOHN A. MENDEZ, UNITED STATES DISTRICT JUDGE.

On October 9, 2018, Mary Kabogoza (“Plaintiff”) filed a complaint against Blue Water Boating, Inc., Skip Abed, and ten “Roe” defendants (“Defendants”). Compl., ECF No. 1. Plaintiff brought a wrongful death claim on her own behalf, and a survival action for negligence on behalf of her deceased husband, Davies Kabogoza. Compl. ¶¶ 8-17. She amended the complaint a month later to replace the negligence claim with a claim for gross negligence. See First Am. Compl. (“FAC”) ¶ 22-29, ECF No. 4. Plaintiff properly invokes the Court’s diversity jurisdiction and admiralty jurisdiction. FAC ¶ 1 (citing 28 U.S.C. §§ 1332, 1333).[1]

Defendants filed a motion to dismiss both of Plaintiff’s claims. Mot. to Dismiss (“Mot.”), ECF No. 6. Plaintiff opposed Defendants’ motion, and filed a Motion for Partial Summary Judgment. Opp’n to Mot. to Dismiss and Cross-Mot. for Partial Summ. J. (“Cross-Mot.”), ECF No. 8. Defendants opposed Plaintiff’s motion. Opp’n to Cross-Mot. and Reply (“Opp’n”), ECF No. 9. Plaintiff, however, never filed a reply to Defendants’ opposition.

For the reasons discussed below, the Court grants in part and denies in part Defendants’ Motion to Dismiss. The Court denies Plaintiff’s Motion for Summary Judgment.

I. FACTUAL ALLEGATIONS

In April 2017, Davies Kabogoza and his friend, Laura Tandy, rented stand-up paddleboards from Defendant Blue Water Boating. FAC ¶ 6. Kabogoza had rented paddleboards from this rental company before. FAC ¶ 7. He was familiar with the staff, but had never told them that he could not swim. FAC ¶ 14.

Kabogoza and Tandy signed a rental agreement before taking out the paddleboards. FAC ¶ 18. The one-page agreement included several general and SUP-specific safety rules, along with a release of liability. FAC, Ex. A. Upon signing the agreement, the rental company-per Kabogoza’s request-gave him and Tandy intermediate-level paddleboards and belt-pack flotation devices. FAC ¶¶ 7, 10, 15. Regular life vests were also available, but Defendants allow their customers to choose between the two options. FAC ¶ 14. Belt-pack flotation devices are “very popular” among paddle boarders, but customers often wear them incorrectly, with the flotation portion of the device facing backwards. Id. Plaintiff alleges that Kabogoza was wearing his incorrectly at the time of the accident. FAC. ¶ 13.

Defendants also gave its customers the option of using a paddleboard leash. FAC ¶ 16. Defendant Skip Abed, the owner of Blue Water Boating, told an investigator that 9 out of 10 times, customers do not want a leash. Id. Neither Kabogoza nor Tandy used a leash while paddleboarding. FAC ¶ 19.

Shortly after Kabogoza and Tandy began using their paddleboards in the Santa Barbara Harbor, the wind increased, and the water became choppy. FAC ¶ 9. Tandy was in front of Kabogoza when she heard a splash behind her. Id. When she turned around, she saw that Kabogoza had fallen off his board, and was struggling to keep his head above water. Id. Tandy was unable to reach Kabogoza and prevent him from drowning. Id. A dive team later found his body at the bottom of the ocean in about 30 feet of water. Id. When the divers found him, Kabogoza’s flotation device was attached to his waist, but in the backwards position. FAC ¶ 12. An inspection revealed that the device was in “good working order.” Id.

II. OPINION

A. Defendants’ Motion to Dismiss

1. Legal Standard

Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 8(a)(2) requires a “short and plain statement of the claim showing that the pleader is entitled to relief.” A court will dismiss a suit if the plaintiff fails to “state a claim upon which relief can be granted.” Fed.R.Civ.P. 12(b)(6). When considering a motion to dismiss, the Court “must accept as true all of the allegations contained in a complaint.” Ashcroft v. Iqbal, 556 U.S. 662, 678 (2009). It is not, however, “bound to accept as true a legal conclusion couched as a factual allegation.” Id. A court may consider documents whose contents are alleged in or attached to the complaint if no party questions the documents’ authenticity. Knievel v. ESPN, 393 F.3d 1068, 1076 (9th Cir. 2005).

2. Analysis

a. Choice of Law

Plaintiff’s claims arise out of this Court’s admiralty jurisdiction as well as its diversity jurisdiction. A claim arising in admiralty is governed by federal admiralty law. Yamaha Motor Corp., U.S.A. v. Calhoun, 516 U.S. 199, 206 (1996). Ordinarily, a court may not supplement maritime law with state law when the state’s law “will not work material prejudice to the characteristic features of the general maritime law, nor interfere with the proper harmony and uniformity of that law.” Id. at 207 (quoting Western Fuel Co. v. Garcia, 257 U.S. 233, 242 (1921)). However, admiralty law does not provide a cause of action for wrongful death or survival suits independent of the remedies provided by state law. Id. at 206. Thus, in admiralty, “state statutes provide the standard of liability as well as the remedial regime” for wrongful death and survival actions. Id. To the extent that Plaintiff’s claims arise under the Court’s admiralty jurisdiction, California law applies.

When a claim arises out of the court’s diversity jurisdiction, the court applies the substantive law of the forum state. Erie R. Co. v. Tompkins, 304 U.S. 64, 78 (1938). But if the dispute is covered by a valid choice-of-law clause, the laws of the contractually-designated state applies. PAE Government Services, Inc. v. MPRI, Inc., 514 F.3d 856, 860 (9th Cir. 2007). Here, the law of the forum and the law designated by the rental agreement’s choice-of-law clause are the same. See FAC, Ex. A. California law applies to the claims arising out of this Court’s diversity jurisdiction.

b. Gross Negligence

Plaintiff has not stated a claim for gross negligence. Gross negligence is defined as “the want of even scant care or an extreme departure from the ordinary standard of conduct.” Id. (quoting Kearl v. Board of Med. Quality Assurance, Cal.App.3d 1040, 1052-53 (1986). The California Supreme Court has emphasized “the importance of maintaining a distinction between ordinary and gross negligence, ” and disposing of cases on that bases “in appropriate circumstances.” City of Santa Barbara, 41 Cal.4th at 766.

Defendants first argue that Plaintiff’s claim should be dismissed because it is barred by the assumption-of-risk doctrine. Mot. at 9-11. The Court disagrees. To the extent that the claim is arising out of the Court’s admiralty jurisdiction, maritime tort law does not adopt California’s approach to this doctrine. Barber v. Marina Sailing, Inc., 36 Cal.App.4th 558, 568-69 (1995). Assumption of risk, be it express or implied, may not serve as a bar to claims that arise under admiralty law. Id. at 568 (“Numerous federal cases have held in a variety of contexts that assumption of [] risk is not permitted as an affirmative defense in admiralty law.”). While true that California law governs the standard of liability and the remedial regime for survival actions, Defendants do not identify any cases to suggest that Yamaha likewise intended state law to modify the defenses available in admiralty. To the extent that Plaintiff’s gross negligence claim arises under the Court’s admiralty jurisdiction, assumption of risk does not bar the action.

Assumption of risk likewise does not preclude Plaintiff’s gross negligence claim arising under the Court’s diversity jurisdiction. Although California law recognizes assumption of risk as a bar to recovery under some circumstances, it does not allow a party to release itself from liability for gross negligence. City of Santa Barbara v. Super. Ct., 41 Cal.4th 747, 779 (2007). To the extent that Plaintiff’s gross negligence claim arises under the Court’s diversity jurisdiction, assumption of risk, again, does not bar the action. For the same reason, the exculpatory clause in Defendants’ rental agreement does not bar Plaintiff’s survival action for gross negligence. So long as the allegations in the complaint support a plausible claim for relief, Plaintiff’s claim must survive Defendant’s motion to dismiss.

But even when accepted as true, Plaintiff’s allegations do not state a plausible gross negligence claim. Plaintiff alleges that Defendants’ gross negligence is reflected in the following omissions:

• Failing to ask Kabogoza about his swimming abilities before renting him a paddleboard;

• Failing to warn Kabogoza of the danger of using and/or misusing the paddleboard and belt-pack flotation device;

• Failing to ensure that Kabogoza was leashed to the paddleboard while using it; and

• Failing to ensure that Kabogoza knew how to use the paddleboard and belt-pack flotation device.

FAC ¶ 25.[2]

These omissions, when viewed in light of the circumstances surrounding this incident, might give rise to a colorable negligence claim had Kabogoza not released Defendants of liability. But they do not rise to the level of culpability found in the cases Plaintiff cites where gross negligence claims survived motions to dismiss. See Cross-Mot. at 10-11. In City of Santa Barbara, the court found that the plaintiff’s claim for gross negligence properly fell outside the defendant’s exculpatory clause when a young girl with epilepsy drowned at defendant’s camp for developmentally-disabled children. 41 Cal.4th at 751-52. The girl’s parents had told the city that their daughter was prone to seizures while in the water and required constant supervision. Id. at 752. Even so, a camp supervisor- knowing the girl had suffered from a seizure less than an hour earlier-diverted her attention while the child was swimming. Id. The girl had a seizure and drowned. Id.Mayall v. USA Water Polo,Inc., 909 F.3d 1055 (9th Cir. 2018) and Lewis v. Mammoth Mountain Ski Area, No. 1:07-cv-00497-OWW-GSA, 2009 WL 426595 (E.D. Cal. Feb. 20, 2009) involved similarly culpable omissions.

The defendants here differ from the defendants in City of Santa Barbara, Mayall, and Lewis in several important respects. First, Defendants knew that Kabogoza had safely engaged in paddleboarding before. FAC ¶ 9. Unlike in City of Santa Barbara, where defendant knew the decedent had a history of having seizures in the water; Mayall, where defendant knew water-polo players were dangerously returning to play after suffering concussions; and Lewis, where the employee knew he was leading beginner snowmobilers, Defendants had no reason to know that Kabogoza was at an increased risk of harm. In fact, Defendants knew that he had a history of safely participating in this activity. FAC ¶ 9. Kabogoza rented paddleboards from Blue Water Boating on up to three previous occasions. Id.

Furthermore, Defendants equipped all of their customers with safety information and safety equipment regardless of their skill level. FAC ¶¶ 6, 16. Defendants made sure that each renter signed a rental agreement that included clear safety instructions about the products it rented. FAC, Ex. A. Defendants gave each of their customers flotation devices to protect against the inherent and inevitable risk of falling into the ocean. FAC ¶ 6. They also made paddleboard leashes available to all their customers even though nine out of ten renters opted not to use them. FAC ¶ 16.

Plaintiff makes much of the fact that Defendants did not ask about each customer’s swimming abilities or require each customer to have use a leash. FAC ¶ 25; Cross-Mot. at 11. Nor did Defendants specifically work with its customers to ensure they were correctly using the flotation devices. FAC ¶ 25; Cross-Mot. at 11. Rental companies can, of course, always do more to ensure that their customers have the safest possible experience. And when those companies’ rentals involve the level of risk that gives way to this sort of tragedy, they likely should. But the law does not task the Court with answering that question today. Here, the question is whether Defendants acted with “a ‘want of even scant care’ or ‘an extreme departure from the ordinary standard of conduct.’ ” Based on Plaintiff’s pleadings, the Court cannot find that they did.

The Court dismisses Plaintiff’s gross negligence claim without prejudice.

c. Wrongful Death

Plaintiff has not stated a wrongful death claim. Nor did she meaningfully oppose Defendants’ motion to dismiss this claim. California law governs wrongful death claims regardless of whether the claim arises under the court’s diversity or admiralty jurisdiction. Yamaha Motor Corp., 516 U.S. At 206-07. To support a claim of negligent wrongful death under California law, “a plaintiff must establish the standard elements of negligence: defendants owed a duty of care; defendants breached their duty; and defendants’ breach caused plaintiff’s injury.” Hayes v. Cnty.of San Diego, 736 F.3d 1223, 1231 (9th Cir. 2013) (citing Wright v. City of Los Angeles, 219 Cal.App.3d 318, 344 (1990)).

A wrongful death action-unlike claims brought under the state’s survival statute-belong to the decedent’s heirs, not to the decedent. Madison v. Super. Ct., 203 Cal.App.3d 589, 596 (1988). All the same, “a plaintiff in a wrongful death action is subject to any defenses which could have been asserted against the decedent.” Id. at 597. These defenses include a decedent’s decision “to waive the defendant’s negligence and assume all risks.” Id.

Here, Kabogoza signed a rental agreement where he expressly assumed the risks of paddleboarding and released Defendants of liability. FAC, Ex. A. To the extent that the assumption-of-risk and exculpatory clauses purport to release Defendants from liability for ordinary negligence, they are valid. See FAC, Ex. A. See also City of Santa Barbara, 41 Cal.4th at 755-58; Knight v. Jewett, 3 Cal.4th 296, 319-21 (1992). And as already discussed, Plaintiff does not make a showing of gross negligence that would bring her wrongful death action outside the rental agreement’s scope.

The rental agreement precludes Plaintiff from making out a claim of ordinary negligence. To the extent that her wrongful death claim is predicated on Defendants’ ordinary negligence, the Court dismisses it with prejudice.

B. Plaintiff’s Cross-Motion for Summary Judgment

The Court has dismissed the gross negligence claim covered by Plaintiff’s Motion for Partial Summary Judgment. The arguments raised in Plaintiff’s motion are, therefore, moot.

III. ORDER

For the reasons set forth above, the Court GRANTS Defendants’ Motion to Dismiss. Plaintiff’s gross negligence claim is DISMISSED WITHOUT PREJUDICE. If Plaintiffs elect to amend their complaint with respect to these claims, they shall file a Second Amended Complaint within twenty (20) days of this Order. Defendants’ responsive pleading is due twenty (20) days thereafter. Plaintiff’s wrongful death claim is DISMISSED WITH PREJUDICE to the extent that it is based on Defendants’ ordinary negligence.

The Court DENIES AS MOOT Plaintiff’s Motion for Summary Judgment on her gross negligence claim.

IT IS SO ORDERED.

———

Notes:

[1] This motion was determined to be suitable for decision without oral argument. E.D. Cal. L.R. 230(g). The hearing was scheduled for February 19, 2019.

[2] Plaintiff also alleges that Defendants breached a duty to Kabogoza by failing to safely manufacture the paddleboard and flotation device, and by failing to timely issue recalls of the defective products. FAC ¶ 25. But to date, Plaintiff has not joined any manufacturers or distributors as defendants.


I have a new book: Boating the Grand Canyon: A “How To” for Private Boaters

Boating the Grand Canyon: A “How To” for Private Boaters

https://rec-law.us/GrandCanyon

Waiting to raft the Colorado River through the Grand Canyon, the greatest river trip in the world?

This new book, Boating the Grand Canyon: A “How To” for Private Boaters, will help make your once in a lifetime trip work.

The Colorado River flowing through the Grand Canyon is one of the world’s most awe-inspiring places on earth. Rafting and kayaking down the river is the water trip of a lifetime. Whether you are trying to get a permit or have already one a permit, this new book will instantly make planning your Grand Canyon River trip easier.

You want this once in a lifetime experience to be everything you have heard and dreamed about for years. Boating the Grand Canyon Will help make those dreams come true.

25 years of working on commercial trips in the Grand Canyon and private trips, or as the Park Service calls them non-commercial river trips, has helped me gather the best from both worlds. On top of that I’ve worked river trips for dozens of companies all over the east and west. Twenty-Five years rafting in the West, 1000’s of river days and dozens of commercial and private trips have given me the opportunity to pick the best of all works to write this book and make your trip special.

This new book will instantly make planning your Grand Canyon River trip easier.

This book will

  • Plan on getting your trip together
  • Pick the perfect friends to go down the river with you.
  • Help you understand the equipment to take or that you renting from an outfitter
  • Know what gear you need to bring with you to make the trip easier and better
  • Give you more time to enjoy the Grand Canyon
  • Save you time
  • Save you money
  • Show you all of the options you have in planning and running your trip
  • Help you transfer your river trip skills to a Grand Canyon trip

Boating the Grand Canyon explains the Non-Commercial River Trip regulations and why and how the Grand Canyon National Park River Rangers enforce the rules. By knowing and understanding the reasoning for the rules you will have a better experience with National Park Service Rangers.

This book is full of:

  • Ideas on how to plan and what not to plan for your private river trip.
  • How to decide what meals will work for your group and trip
  • Ideas on how to organize
    • Your trip
    • Your kitchen crews
    • Your menu
    • Your menu based on your schedule
    • Your boat
  • How to Quickly rig in the morning
  • How to easily de-rig in the evening
  • How to plan, in advance

12 Chapters of ideas, time savers, equipment and gear to bring and not to bring. The best way to organize your trip and the best way to keep everyone happy. 150 pages of tips, tricks and ideas to keep you enjoying the trip and not worrying about it. Two chapters on resources, links and terminology to help you become the professional Grand Canyon private boater.

  1. You want to run the Grand Canyon.
  2. Planning your trip: Organizing Your People
  3. What to Take Down the River: Stuff
  4. Food and Pre-Trip Food Preparation
  5. Things to do before you Start Your Trip
  6. Ideas on Packing and Rigging
  7. On the River
  8. Special days on the River
  9. Getting to the End of your trip
  10. Hints Tips & Tricks
  11. River Etiquette
  12. Books, Websites & References
  13. Appendix
  14. Glossary: Grand Canyon Terms & Terminology

Whitewater rafting and kayaking the legendary rapids, Horn, Granite, Crystal and Lava are what your dreams concentrate on, are you good enough, can I do it, how much fun am I going to have? This book will show you how to load your boats, and deal with the issues so running the rapids is not the keep you up all night worrying issue it might be.

The Colorado River has so much more to offer than just fantastic Whitewater. Views that are only available on a river trip such as Vasey’s Paradise, Red Wall Cavern, Elves Chasm and Deer Creek Falls are just a few.

No matter if you follow this book to the letter, or you glance through it for some new ideas, Boating the Grand Canyon will help you enjoy the Canyon, watch it change the lives of the people you are floating downriver with and marvel at what it did to you when you get home.

The Grand Canyon will change your life! This book, Boating the Grand Canyon will give you more Time to Enjoy the Adventure.

Summit Magic Publishing, LLC

Jim Moss


I have a new book: Boating the Grand Canyon: A “How To” for Private Boaters

Boating the Grand Canyon: A “How To” for Private Boaters

https://rec-law.us/GrandCanyon

Waiting to raft the Colorado River through the Grand Canyon, the greatest river trip in the world?

This new book, Boating the Grand Canyon: A “How To” for Private Boaters, will help make your once in a lifetime trip work.

The Colorado River flowing through the Grand Canyon is one of the world’s most awe-inspiring places on earth. Rafting and kayaking down the river is the water trip of a lifetime. Whether you are trying to get a permit or have already one a permit, this new book will instantly make planning your Grand Canyon River trip easier.

You want this once in a lifetime experience to be everything you have heard and dreamed about for years. Boating the Grand Canyon Will help make those dreams come true.

25 years of working on commercial trips in the Grand Canyon and private trips, or as the Park Service calls them non-commercial river trips, has helped me gather the best from both worlds. On top of that I’ve worked river trips for dozens of companies all over the east and west. Twenty-Five years rafting in the West, 1000’s of river days and dozens of commercial and private trips have given me the opportunity to pick the best of all works to write this book and make your trip special.

This new book will instantly make planning your Grand Canyon River trip easier.

This book will

  • Plan on getting your trip together
  • Pick the perfect friends to go down the river with you.
  • Help you understand the equipment to take or that you renting from an outfitter
  • Know what gear you need to bring with you to make the trip easier and better
  • Give you more time to enjoy the Grand Canyon
  • Save you time
  • Save you money
  • Show you all of the options you have in planning and running your trip
  • Help you transfer your river trip skills to a Grand Canyon trip

Boating the Grand Canyon explains the Non-Commercial River Trip regulations and why and how the Grand Canyon National Park River Rangers enforce the rules. By knowing and understanding the reasoning for the rules you will have a better experience with National Park Service Rangers.

This book is full of:

  • Ideas on how to plan and what not to plan for your private river trip.
  • How to decide what meals will work for your group and trip
  • Ideas on how to organize
    • Your trip
    • Your kitchen crews
    • Your menu
    • Your menu based on your schedule
    • Your boat
  • How to Quickly rig in the morning
  • How to easily de-rig in the evening
  • How to plan, in advance

12 Chapters of ideas, time savers, equipment and gear to bring and not to bring. The best way to organize your trip and the best way to keep everyone happy. 150 pages of tips, tricks and ideas to keep you enjoying the trip and not worrying about it. Two chapters on resources, links and terminology to help you become the professional Grand Canyon private boater.

  1. You want to run the Grand Canyon.
  2. Planning your trip: Organizing Your People
  3. What to Take Down the River: Stuff
  4. Food and Pre-Trip Food Preparation
  5. Things to do before you Start Your Trip
  6. Ideas on Packing and Rigging
  7. On the River
  8. Special days on the River
  9. Getting to the End of your trip
  10. Hints Tips & Tricks
  11. River Etiquette
  12. Books, Websites & References
  13. Appendix
  14. Glossary: Grand Canyon Terms & Terminology

Whitewater rafting and kayaking the legendary rapids, Horn, Granite, Crystal and Lava are what your dreams concentrate on, are you good enough, can I do it, how much fun am I going to have? This book will show you how to load your boats, and deal with the issues so running the rapids is not the keep you up all night worrying issue it might be.

The Colorado River has so much more to offer than just fantastic Whitewater. Views that are only available on a river trip such as Vasey’s Paradise, Red Wall Cavern, Elves Chasm and Deer Creek Falls are just a few.

No matter if you follow this book to the letter, or you glance through it for some new ideas, Boating the Grand Canyon will help you enjoy the Canyon, watch it change the lives of the people you are floating downriver with and marvel at what it did to you when you get home.

The Grand Canyon will change your life! This book, Boating the Grand Canyon will give you more Time to Enjoy the Adventure.

Summit Magic Publishing, LLC

Jim Moss


I have a new book: Boating the Grand Canyon: A “How To” for Private Boaters

Boating the Grand Canyon: A “How To” for Private Boaters

https://rec-law.us/GrandCanyon

Waiting to raft the Colorado River through the Grand Canyon, the greatest river trip in the world?

This new book, Boating the Grand Canyon: A “How To” for Private Boaters, will help make your once in a lifetime trip work.

The Colorado River flowing through the Grand Canyon is one of the world’s most awe-inspiring places on earth. Rafting and kayaking down the river is the water trip of a lifetime. Whether you are trying to get a permit or have already one a permit, this new book will instantly make planning your Grand Canyon River trip easier.

You want this once in a lifetime experience to be everything you have heard and dreamed about for years. Boating the Grand Canyon Will help make those dreams come true.

25 years of working on commercial trips in the Grand Canyon and private trips, or as the Park Service calls them non-commercial river trips, has helped me gather the best from both worlds. On top of that I’ve worked river trips for dozens of companies all over the east and west. Twenty-Five years rafting in the West, 1000’s of river days and dozens of commercial and private trips have given me the opportunity to pick the best of all works to write this book and make your trip special.

This new book will instantly make planning your Grand Canyon River trip easier.

This book will

  • Plan on getting your trip together
  • Pick the perfect friends to go down the river with you.
  • Help you understand the equipment to take or that you renting from an outfitter
  • Know what gear you need to bring with you to make the trip easier and better
  • Give you more time to enjoy the Grand Canyon
  • Save you time
  • Save you money
  • Show you all of the options you have in planning and running your trip
  • Help you transfer your river trip skills to a Grand Canyon trip

Boating the Grand Canyon explains the Non-Commercial River Trip regulations and why and how the Grand Canyon National Park River Rangers enforce the rules. By knowing and understanding the reasoning for the rules you will have a better experience with National Park Service Rangers.

This book is full of:

  • Ideas on how to plan and what not to plan for your private river trip.
  • How to decide what meals will work for your group and trip
  • Ideas on how to organize
    • Your trip
    • Your kitchen crews
    • Your menu
    • Your menu based on your schedule
    • Your boat
  • How to Quickly rig in the morning
  • How to easily de-rig in the evening
  • How to plan, in advance

12 Chapters of ideas, time savers, equipment and gear to bring and not to bring. The best way to organize your trip and the best way to keep everyone happy. 150 pages of tips, tricks and ideas to keep you enjoying the trip and not worrying about it. Two chapters on resources, links and terminology to help you become the professional Grand Canyon private boater.

  1. You want to run the Grand Canyon.
  2. Planning your trip: Organizing Your People
  3. What to Take Down the River: Stuff
  4. Food and Pre-Trip Food Preparation
  5. Things to do before you Start Your Trip
  6. Ideas on Packing and Rigging
  7. On the River
  8. Special days on the River
  9. Getting to the End of your trip
  10. Hints Tips & Tricks
  11. River Etiquette
  12. Books, Websites & References
  13. Appendix
  14. Glossary: Grand Canyon Terms & Terminology

Whitewater rafting and kayaking the legendary rapids, Horn, Granite, Crystal and Lava are what your dreams concentrate on, are you good enough, can I do it, how much fun am I going to have? This book will show you how to load your boats, and deal with the issues so running the rapids is not the keep you up all night worrying issue it might be.

The Colorado River has so much more to offer than just fantastic Whitewater. Views that are only available on a river trip such as Vasey’s Paradise, Red Wall Cavern, Elves Chasm and Deer Creek Falls are just a few.

No matter if you follow this book to the letter, or you glance through it for some new ideas, Boating the Grand Canyon will help you enjoy the Canyon, watch it change the lives of the people you are floating downriver with and marvel at what it did to you when you get home.

The Grand Canyon will change your life! This book, Boating the Grand Canyon will give you more Time to Enjoy the Adventure.

Summit Magic Publishing, LLC

Jim Moss


I have a new book: Boating the Grand Canyon: A “How To” for Private Boaters

Boating the Grand Canyon: A “How To” for Private Boaters

https://rec-law.us/GrandCanyon

Waiting to raft the Colorado River through the Grand Canyon, the greatest river trip in the world?

This new book, Boating the Grand Canyon: A “How To” for Private Boaters, will help make your once in a lifetime trip work.

The Colorado River flowing through the Grand Canyon is one of the world’s most awe-inspiring places on earth. Rafting and kayaking down the river is the water trip of a lifetime. Whether you are trying to get a permit or have already one a permit, this new book will instantly make planning your Grand Canyon River trip easier.

You want this once in a lifetime experience to be everything you have heard and dreamed about for years. Boating the Grand Canyon Will help make those dreams come true.

25 years of working on commercial trips in the Grand Canyon and private trips, or as the Park Service calls them non-commercial river trips, has helped me gather the best from both worlds. On top of that I’ve worked river trips for dozens of companies all over the east and west. Twenty-Five years rafting in the West, 1000’s of river days and dozens of commercial and private trips have given me the opportunity to pick the best of all works to write this book and make your trip special.

This new book will instantly make planning your Grand Canyon River trip easier.

This book will

  • Plan on getting your trip together
  • Pick the perfect friends to go down the river with you.
  • Help you understand the equipment to take or that you renting from an outfitter
  • Know what gear you need to bring with you to make the trip easier and better
  • Give you more time to enjoy the Grand Canyon
  • Save you time
  • Save you money
  • Show you all of the options you have in planning and running your trip
  • Help you transfer your river trip skills to a Grand Canyon trip

Boating the Grand Canyon explains the Non-Commercial River Trip regulations and why and how the Grand Canyon National Park River Rangers enforce the rules. By knowing and understanding the reasoning for the rules you will have a better experience with National Park Service Rangers.

This book is full of:

  • Ideas on how to plan and what not to plan for your private river trip.
  • How to decide what meals will work for your group and trip
  • Ideas on how to organize
    • Your trip
    • Your kitchen crews
    • Your menu
    • Your menu based on your schedule
    • Your boat
  • How to Quickly rig in the morning
  • How to easily de-rig in the evening
  • How to plan, in advance

12 Chapters of ideas, time savers, equipment and gear to bring and not to bring. The best way to organize your trip and the best way to keep everyone happy. 150 pages of tips, tricks and ideas to keep you enjoying the trip and not worrying about it. Two chapters on resources, links and terminology to help you become the professional Grand Canyon private boater.

  1. You want to run the Grand Canyon.
  2. Planning your trip: Organizing Your People
  3. What to Take Down the River: Stuff
  4. Food and Pre-Trip Food Preparation
  5. Things to do before you Start Your Trip
  6. Ideas on Packing and Rigging
  7. On the River
  8. Special days on the River
  9. Getting to the End of your trip
  10. Hints Tips & Tricks
  11. River Etiquette
  12. Books, Websites & References
  13. Appendix
  14. Glossary: Grand Canyon Terms & Terminology

Whitewater rafting and kayaking the legendary rapids, Horn, Granite, Crystal and Lava are what your dreams concentrate on, are you good enough, can I do it, how much fun am I going to have? This book will show you how to load your boats, and deal with the issues so running the rapids is not the keep you up all night worrying issue it might be.

The Colorado River has so much more to offer than just fantastic Whitewater. Views that are only available on a river trip such as Vasey’s Paradise, Red Wall Cavern, Elves Chasm and Deer Creek Falls are just a few.

No matter if you follow this book to the letter, or you glance through it for some new ideas, Boating the Grand Canyon will help you enjoy the Canyon, watch it change the lives of the people you are floating downriver with and marvel at what it did to you when you get home.

The Grand Canyon will change your life! This book, Boating the Grand Canyon will give you more Time to Enjoy the Adventure.

Summit Magic Publishing, LLC

Jim Moss


New Book Aids Both CEOs and Students

“Outdoor Recreation Insurance, Risk Management, and Law” is a definitive guide to preventing and overcoming legal issues in the outdoor recreation industry

Denver based James H. Moss, JD, an attorney who specializes in the legal issues of outdoor recreation and adventure travel companies, guides, outfitters, and manufacturers, has written a comprehensive legal guidebook titled, “Outdoor Recreation Insurance, Risk Management, and Law”. Sagamore Publishing, a well-known Illinois-based educational publisher, distributes the book.

Mr. Moss, who applied his 30 years of experience with the legal, insurance, and risk management issues of the outdoor industry, wrote the book in order to fill a void.

There was nothing out there that looked at case law and applied it to legal problems in outdoor recreation,” Moss explained. “The goal of this book is to provide sound advice based on past law and experience.”

The Reference book is sold via the Summit Magic Publishing, LLC.

While written as a college-level textbook, the guide also serves as a legal primer for executives, managers, and business owners in the field of outdoor recreation. It discusses how to tackle, prevent, and overcome legal issues in all areas of the industry.

The book is organized into 14 chapters that are easily accessed as standalone topics, or read through comprehensively. Specific topics include rental programs, statues that affect outdoor recreation, skiing and ski areas, and defenses to claims. Mr. Moss also incorporated listings of legal definitions, cases, and statutes, making the book easy for laypeople to understand.

PURCHASE

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of Cases

Introduction

Outdoor Recreation Law and Insurance: Overview

Risk

    Risk

        Perception versus Actual Risk

        Risk v. Reward

        Risk Evaluation

    Risk Management Strategies

        Humans & Risk

        Risk = Accidents

        Accidents may/may not lead to litigation

    How Do You Deal with Risk?

    How Does Acceptance of Risk Convert to Litigation?

    Negative Feelings against the Business

Risk, Accidents & Litigation

        No Real Acceptance of the Risk

        No Money to Pay Injury Bills

        No Health Insurance

        Insurance Company Subrogation

        Negative Feelings

Litigation

    Dealing with Different People

    Dealing with Victims

        Develop a Friend & Eliminate a Lawsuit

        Don’t Compound Minor Problems into Major Lawsuits

    Emergency Medical Services

    Additional Causes of Lawsuits in Outdoor Recreation

        Employees

        How Do You Handle A Victim?

        Dealing with Different People

        Dealing with Victims

Legal System in the United States

    Courts

        State Court System

        Federal Court System

        Other Court Systems

    Laws

    Statutes

    Parties to a Lawsuit

    Attorneys

    Trials

Law

    Torts

        Negligence

            Duty

            Breach of the Duty

            Injury

            Proximate Causation

            Damages

        Determination of Duty Owed

        Duty of an Outfitter

        Duty of a Guide

        Duty of Livery Owner

        Duty of Rental Agent

        Duty of Volunteer Youth Leader

        In Loco Parentis

    Intentional Torts

    Gross Negligence

    Willful & Wanton Negligence

    Intentional Negligence

    Negligence Per Se

    Strict Liability

    Attractive Nuisance

    Results of Acts That Are More than Ordinary Negligence

    Product Liability

    Contracts

        Breach of Contract

        Breach of Warranty

        Express Warranty

        Implied Warranty

            Warranty of Fitness for a Particular Purpose

            Warranty of Merchantability

            Warranty of Statute

    Detrimental Reliance

    Unjust Enrichment

    Liquor Liability

    Food Service Liability

    Damages

        Compensatory Damages

        Special Damages

        Punitive Damages

Statutory Defenses

    Skier Safety Acts

    Whitewater Guides & Outfitters

    Equine Liability Acts

 

Legal Defenses

    Assumption of Risk

        Express Assumption of Risk

        Implied Assumption of Risk

        Primary Assumption of Risk

        Secondary Assumption of Risk

    Contributory Negligence

    Assumption of Risk & Minors

    Inherent Dangers

    Assumption of Risk Documents.

        Assumption of Risk as a Defense.

        Statutory Assumption of Risk

        Express Assumption of Risk

    Contributory Negligence

    Joint and Several Liability

Release, Waivers & Contracts Not to Sue

    Why do you need them

    Exculpatory Agreements

        Releases

        Waivers

        Covenants Not to sue

    Who should be covered

    What should be included

        Negligence Clause

        Jurisdiction & Venue Clause

        Assumption of Risk

        Other Clauses

        Indemnification

            Hold Harmless Agreement

        Liquidated Damages

        Previous Experience

        Misc

            Photography release

            Video Disclaimer

            Drug and/or Alcohol clause

            Medical Transportation & Release

                HIPAA

        Problem Areas

    What the Courts do not want to see

Statute of Limitations

        Minors

        Adults

Defenses Myths

    Agreements to Participate

    Parental Consent Agreements

    Informed Consent Agreements

    Certification

    Accreditation

    Standards, Guidelines & Protocols

    License

Specific Occupational Risks

    Personal Liability of Instructors, Teachers & Educators

        College & University Issues

    Animal Operations, Packers

        Equine Activities

    Canoe Livery Operations

        Tube rentals

Downhill Skiing

Ski Rental Programs

Indoor Climbing Walls

Instructional Programs

Mountaineering

Retail Rental Programs

Rock Climbing

Tubing Hills

Whitewater Rafting

Risk Management Plan

    Introduction for Risk Management Plans

    What Is A Risk Management Plan?

    What should be in a Risk Management Plan

    Risk Management Plan Template

    Ideas on Developing a Risk Management Plan

    Preparing your Business for Unknown Disasters

    Building Fire & Evacuation

Dealing with an Emergency

 

Insurance

    Theory of Insurance

    Insurance Companies

    Deductibles

    Self-Insured Retention

    Personal v. Commercial Policies

    Types of Policies

        Automobile

            Comprehension

            Collision

            Bodily Injury

            Property Damage

            Uninsured Motorist

            Personal Injury Protection

            Non-Owned Automobile

            Hired Car

    Fire Policy

        Coverage

        Liability

        Named Peril v. All Risk

    Commercial Policies

    Underwriting

    Exclusions

    Special Endorsements

    Rescue Reimbursement

    Policy Procedures

    Coverage’s

    Agents

    Brokers

        General Agents

        Captive Agents

    Types of Policies

        Claims Made

        Occurrence

    Claims

    Federal and State Government Insurance Requirements

Bibliography

Index

The 427-page volume is sold via Summit Magic Publishing, LLC.