Marketing is not a way to manage risks or stop lawsuits. Marketing Makes Promises that Risk Management Must Pay For.
In an effort to sell services and promote their organization, many trade associations accredit, certify or anoint its members, with various titles, quasi degrees and paper to put on their wall and website. There is always a charge for the program and in many cases; the trade association’s budget is based on selling this program. Many times, these new programs are sold as a cure-all or at least help in risk management or litigation defense.
They are neither. At best, these are training programs; generally, they have little value other than for marketing. Worse, an accreditation can help you lose a lawsuit.
Several trade associations offer this marketing program as a way to show your future clients that you uphold the standards, or whatever of the trade association. (Ignoring the issue that people want to know if you meet their standards, not those of a trade association.) If you pay for the program you will be inspected/reviewed by “trained” members of the association who, then say you have a qualifying program or not. A trade organization will offer the idea that accreditation can provide risk management or better defenses to litigation. Because the program is up to speed on the latest and greatest or at least the tried and true for its industry.
These generally fail for several reasons.
- Because no trade association represents a large segment of the industry and in most cases, they represent less than half of the trade. Granted, the better programs are usually members of the trade association, but that still does give them the clout or numbers needed to dictate how a member should run its business.
- There are dozens of instances where a different way is being used, successfully by other members or non-members of the association. Consequently, the association’s way is proved ineffective or just not the only way.
- State laws and prior litigation have changed the standards, and the trade association has not caught up making their standards look dated.
On top of that, trade associates move by their members. A new idea developed and used by one member needs to float t the surface and be discovered by the group writing the standards. By the time that happens, the standard is written, vetted, reviewed and published several years have passed. You need to react immediately to changes in your industry, not wait for someone to write it down.
Worse no new ideas are created because of fear that the idea will not qualify under the accreditation program creating liability for the member. If you develop a new way to run a program, that is safer but requires less people, you will be liable if you run the program without the required number of people because the association standard requires it. Even if your new idea has that extra person just standing around.
Marketing is not a defense against a lawsuit.
As much as we may wish, showing that an organization may hold itself to a higher standard to prevent litigation or help win a lawsuit, does not work. Standards of care or levels of doing something are not created by trade associations. The issue at trial is whether or not the defendant in litigation is determined by the jury to have met the standard of care proposed by the Expert Witnesses in the trial. Trying does not change that; trying to be good, trying to stay on top of things, trying to be educated does not cause a change.
In reality, it is a minimum two-step process that keeps one from losing in court. The first step is staying current. The second step is staying above the minimum required level of care a jury will accept. However, even these two steps may not be enough with the volume of information that flows today, and the speed which things change. Again the definition of the problem with trade associations and accreditation. The process to create the process is always behind the time curve. As such, the program that received the blessings of the trade association is probably out of date in a courtroom.
Marketing is simply an attempt to influence the decision making of someone. If that person believes that you are a better organization or offer a better program than your competitor, then your marketing was successful. Factors too numerous to discuss and of little relevance to this article go into marketing and how it influences a person’s decision. If you believe the seal on the door or the diploma on the wall going to influence someone to try your program, then take that route, just make sure you understand what you are buying and why.
On a side note, when I had an office, I had art on the walls, Not a single degree or diploma. In twenty years, only one person asked me where my diplomas were. I did not care to look at diplomas; I wanted to look at wildlife and nature scenes. I was spending more time in the office than anyone. Twenty years and only one person cared what diploma I had.
Someone who arrives at your business is going to have higher expectations. The person who sees the promises your marketing makes is going to expect that level or greater service. That expectation will apply, even if the accreditation has nothing to do with the program or the issues of your guests. You are accredited; therefore, I should not have been hurt.
That does not mean you should not tell the world how great you are. It means you must meet the marketing you are promoting.
Marketing also affects and to some extent, shows the world how you think of yourself. A current example is zip lines. For fifty years zip lines were used by the military to train recruits and by movies about the military to thrill viewers. The next twenty years zip lines were used in team building programs as part of a ropes or challenge course. Now zip lines have been used purely as an amusement device. People go out for a day of zip lining like they used to rent go karts or play a round of golf. Your marketing efforts to steer your possible clients back to the idea of team building are going to interfere and have to overcome the general expectations that zip lines are just fun.
Accreditation meets that same issue in the minds of the people coming to your program. Is the certificate on the wall to show me how good you are or on the wall to convince me not to sue? Alternatively, is the certificate proof that you did not take the proper care of me causing my injury. Marketing to cross purposes or marketing to reverse community beliefs is difficult.
Marketing makes Promises that Risk Management has to Pay For.
As stated earlier, the expectations of someone who has researched your diplomas, seals and other marketing accomplishments are going to have a higher expectation that you are not going to injure them. Your commitment to staying current, your efforts to obtain the seal of approval and the paper on the wall are proof, in your guest’s minds, that you are better than your competitors. Better may mean to provide a better program or service. It better definitely means your participants will not be injured.
The American Camp Association (ACA) has an accreditation program that the ACA recognizes for what it is, a marketing program. “ACA Accreditation: Valuable Marketing Tools.” The web page even makes that known. (http://www.acacamps.org/accreditation/marketing). Numerous other instances can be found where accreditation is synonymous with marketing.
- Private Duty Service Expansion through Accreditation and Marketing Excellence
- Importance of Accreditation as a Marketing Strategy
- Use CLE Accreditation as a Marketing Tool
Marketing is not risk management and not good at providing a defense to litigation. The two are opposite in purpose. Marketing is trying to bring people to the program by telling people the program is great and to some extent, safe. If someone is injured, then the program was not safe and the marketing was not true. Having your marketing turn on you while you are a defendant is one of the worst situations to find yourself when involved in litigation. Having your marketing prove that you were a bad operator is the worst.
That does not mean you should not get the best training you can receive in running your business, no matter what the name of the certificate you receive at the end.
Accreditation does have a legal definition and support.
Accreditation from a legal standpoint is defined by Federal Statutes. The Department of Education oversees accreditation of colleges and universities in the United States. A list of accredited college and universities and the agencies that can accredit a college or university can be found at the Department’s website. (There is also a list of those colleges that are no longer recognized.) The department of education also has a statutory scheme for determining how an educational organization will be accredited, which can be found at USC § 1099b. Recognition of accrediting agency or association.
From a legal standpoint, an accredited educational intuition is on that list. It is eligible for federal and state assistance and students of those colleges are eligible for federal financial aid.
Accreditation from any other organization for any other purpose is done to enhance or market the organization seeking the approval and the agency granting the approval. Let’s first look at what this means.
If you are not seeking to offer federal financial aid to your students or receive federal aid, then accreditation can be anything you want. If you want to be accredited, send me $10.00, and I will accredit you. (You have been accredited by James H. Moss) My accreditation has the same legal value and possibly the same marketing value as any other accreditation you can receive. The issues are not. What was done, but what can you hang on your wall and advertise to prospective clients who make you look good? (The $10 will get you a cheap diploma you have to print yourself.)
A good attorney will always look behind the diploma to see what is being covered up. Throw rugs hide spots on carpets, and pictures hide holes on the wall. Attorneys know that paperwork on the wall may be covering up something that the program felt they lacked. In some cases, he or she may only find a hole in the wall. In many cases, he will see that the accreditation is just marketing. Even without an injury that can be associated with a violation of the accreditation requirements, the attorney will use the accreditation against the organization. As the owner proudly runs through his accomplishments on the witness stand, mentioning that his organization is accredited by XYZ trade association the plaintiffs’ attorney will be prepared.
The plaintiff’s attorney will have gone through each of the accreditation requirements that the organization no longer meets or violated and have the owner admit to the problems. If the accreditation is not really based on any real requirements, (like mine), then that will also be pointed out. Either the organization manager or owner will come away looking like they bought the paper to impress guests, or they earned it and then ignored it. A marketing program gone awry.
In many cases, this “accreditation mills” type of accreditation may be probably safer from a legal perspective. There is no list of items or requirements that can be used to show you violated that as an accredited organization, you should not have broken.
You are, in fact, buying marketing when you seek accreditation. This purchase works both ways providing the accrediting agency with value because they can list the organizations that have received accreditation, thus promoting themselves. The organizations that receive accreditation have come to the trade association for its seal of approval boosting the association’s standings the eyes of the industry.
However, accreditation can have a negative side also. Accreditation usually is accompanied by a list of the requirements that must be met. The more the accrediting organization wants to promote itself the longer the list. For an agency that has been accredited, this list then becomes a set of rules which they have agreed to meet. Any failure to meet these rules or regulations cannot be violated. Example:
If the accreditation says you will have one guide per five guests any variation from this at the time of an injury, and the plaintiffs (injured person) attorney has proof that you violated your own rules or standards of operation. In effect, you have provided the plaintiffs with a list of rules which you have agreed not to violate at risk of losing your accreditation.
If accreditation was a true accreditation, it would be removed when an accredited organization fails to continue to meet accreditation. Remember the Department of Education has that list of colleges that no longer are accredited. I’ve never seen a trade association do this (doesn’t mean they don’t).
By providing the plaintiff’s attorney with a list of requirements for accreditation you have also provided the plaintiff’s attorney with the standards that you have breached. The standard is what a reasonable man or organization would do in your situation. Instead of having to dig and hire expects to achieve that information, the plaintiff only has to look up the requirements for accreditation. If the injured guest, the plaintiff’s attorney’s client, was injured when something on that list was not met, then the attorney has proof of a breach of a standard.
It is irritating to see an expert witness report from the plaintiff that goes through each of the points the defendant missed for the diploma hanging on the wall. Most times the plaintiff’s expert witness was trained by the trade association that created the accreditation.
How do you think the Defendant feels watching someone trained by an association he paid money to join and more money to receive their marketing program testify against them?
In the above case, if the accreditation required one guide per five guests and there were twenty guests than the program needs four guides. If one guide stops to look at a flower or slows to tie his shoe, the program now has one guide per 6 or seven guests. If a guest is injured at that moment, the plaintiff’s attorney will argue that the injury could have been prevented with more guides, the standard required a specific number of guides, the defendant organization knew it needed more guides, (it was accredited) and if failed to provide the necessary number of guides.
Accreditation, like any outside review can cost you.
Whenever you have someone come into a program and provide you with a review of your program, that review may come back to haunt you. It is subject to discovery in litigation. Discovery means any document or witness that may have information that may lead to information about the case must be provided to the opposing side. Any document, such as an accreditation review, whether you passed it or not, must be given to the opposing side. Consequently, you want to make sure that any outside review is done in a professional manner and that negative comments and issues are either handled correctly, fixed immediately, or are not part of the written review.
Accreditation has greater value, greater weight for the plaintiff when you have failed to meet the requirements you paid to have reviewed. If the accreditation was so valuable to you, it cost you time and money to receive, how could you, then ignore it without violating the rules?
An example of this that went wrong is the case of Adam Dzialo. (See Marketing is marketing and Risk Management is not marketing, http://rec-law.us/1bPWl1c; Money is important in some lawsuits, but the emotions that start a lawsuit., http://rec-law.us/xbSs4M; Serious Disconnect: Why people sue., http://rec-law.us/wm2cBn, Wow, someone apologized, http://rec-law.us/xEIujw) Adam was enrolled in a summer camp run by Greenfield Community College. The college had just undergone a review to achieve accreditation. The accreditation report stated the number of instructors for the whitewater class was insufficient. Adam suffered a leg entrapment during a whitewater class suffering permanent brain injuries. The number of instructors for the class was below the number required to achieve accreditation, and this became a major issue during the litigation. The review provided in the accreditation process was used by the plaintiff to argue the defendant was negligent.
The defendant was told their program was insufficient, and they ignored that notice. Is the defendant liable?!
Accreditation from the perspective of an advanced degree
If you do not want your program to be marketed as an amusement but something that provides greater benefits, you might align yourself with educational organizations. As such, an “accreditation” may add that aura of validity as an educational organization rather than a summer camp. No matter that most kids would rather go to a fun summer camp than an educational one. (Not that those concepts are totally separate.)
In a courtroom, however, the marketing will be stripped bare and what you are will be laid out in the courtroom. No matter how much money you spend on marketing, if the jury sees you as an amusement park, you are an amusement park, and your marketing program will be exposed as a ruse.
It is easy to strip away an accreditation program. A plaintiff’s lawyer simply goes to the list of developed by the US Department of Education of accreditation agencies and looks for the association that accredited you. As the defendant, you are then in a position of trying to prove the value of your accreditation or diploma on the wall. What did you pay for it and why? What value does it really have? If it is not recognized, isn’t it no more than a marketing program or worse a scam.
The department of education has a statutory scheme for determining how an educational organization will be accredited. USC § 1099b. Recognition of accrediting agency or association. The department of education itself does not accredit educational institutions.
Many times an accrediting association believes that by creating a list of objectives, rules and items to meet the accrediting goals, they have done a good job. In essence, the more rules and paper the better the accreditation. However, as the Department of Education and as most people already know, more does not mean better. The accreditation is based on the “the institution’s mission, goals and objectives, resources and resource allocation, student admission requirements, student support services and the quality of the faculty and educational offerings.” The accreditation is based on the college’s goals as well as the accrediting organizations’ goals.
More may mean very bad.
One of the basic tenets of education is teaching. Helping the student understand, comprehend and be able to use the knowledge gained. One of the tenets of accreditation is the educational organization employs instructors who know the subject matter of what they are teaching but also employs people who have been trained to teach. Very few association accreditation checklists look at whether the instructors have degrees in teaching.
Accreditation at best is just one of many ways an organization can show they strive to be as good as they can and to maintain good practices. It is among a list of things that an organization can do. That other equally important, if not more important items include constant training of employees, maintain professional relationships with trade associations and attending conferences, staying current in the industry. However, the paper on the wall or the seal of approval on the front door, do not prove that this was either effective or provides any protection. The issue is and always has been doing the defendant organization breach a duty of care to the injured plaintiff.
So, what does it mean when you do not meet the standards or accreditation of the trade association when someone was injured?
A legal duty is the duty owed to the plaintiff or what would a reasonable person do in the defendant’s situation. Duty is the first of four steps that the plaintiff must prove to prove negligence. Those steps are:
- Breach of a duty
- Injury proximately caused by the breach of duty.
- Damages from the injury
For the plaintiff to win his or her lawsuit, the plaintiff must prove all four elements of negligence. As you can see, nothing in the definition of negligence is based on the diplomas on the wall or the certificates in a file.
The hardest part of any negligence suit to prove for the plaintiff is, was there a duty and a breach of the duty. Duty is defined as the standard of care of a reasonable person or organization in the same position as the defendant. Normally, the plaintiff and his or her attorney would hire expert witnesses to determine if the duty was breached. However, if there is a written document which the defendant has agreed to abide by in running his or her organization, the written document will be substituted by the plaintiff as the standard of care. Those requirements that you met to be accredited are then transposed by the plaintiff as the standards of care that you agreed to meet. Your agreement to meet those requirements is evidence by you proclaiming them to the guests.
By agreeing to them or by calling them standards, it is a foregone conclusion, almost, that, that is the standard of care you breached.
In effect, once accreditation is obtained, it becomes the level of operation that the organization can never fall below. It becomes a list of requirements the organization must always meet every day.
Accreditation or lack thereof, can also come back to haunt you in another way. Like any misrepresentation, if you claim you have a level of training or skill, and you don’t. That is misrepresentation or fraud. Even if the accreditation has no value as a defense and is only a marketing ploy, failure to have what you claim is fraud, and you are liable for any injury your misrepresentation caused.
A good example of that is you are accredited by XYZ Association on January 1, 2012 for a three-year term. Your accreditation says you have your staff trained in current CPR. In January of 2014, the American Red Cross changes how CPR is taught, and none of your staff are current. In fact, 99% of the people trained in CPR are no longer current. If on January 2, 2014, you have someone have a heart attack on your property who dies, are you liable because you stated and held yourself out as being accredited and yet you were not?
Professional relationships, membership in trade associations, employee training and staying current rarely have the possible kick back that the certificate on the wall may have. Those ways of maintaining professionalism do not come with a list of ways that you have failed to be professional.
Another way that any type of training can come back to haunt an industry is in raising the expectation of the guests of the industry above the normal level of care.
Any value of accreditation that once existed has been diluted by its adoption by numerous other industries. Once the sole domain of higher education, as stated earlier anyone and everyone are now offering accreditation for anything and everything. As such, the term has lost any significance in its value to the public. And that value has always been as a marketing tool rather than a legal defense.
Accreditation to be valuable must occur regularly and be current.
Another major issue is once a program receives accreditation. The program ceases to stay current. The program rests on its laurels on in this case the accreditation. The accreditation provides a false sense of accomplishment and finality, when just the opposite is true.
Staying current in an industry is the only way to stay in the winning column in litigation.
Major Organizations do not offer Accreditation.
Very few trade associations offer accreditation. They know that the cost of keeping the accreditation up to the level it should be along with the risk it subjects its membership too, do not justify the time and expense. Some of the organizations that do not offer accreditation in the outdoor recreation industry are the National Ski Area Association, Boy Scouts of America, Girl Scouts of America and America Outdoors. All of these organizations represent large groups of people. Commercial or business ventures that are serious about their business and represent a large segment of their industry.
Is Accreditation bad?
No accreditation is not a bad thing, unless you are sold on the idea and achieve the accreditation on a mistaken theory that it will assist in either staying out of court or winning in court.
However, like all programs you must know what you are buying. No longer are the days of caveat emptor the rule of the day. That legal pronouncement was created when determining the age of your transportation consisted of looking at the horse’s teeth and walking around the animal. Now days you can look at a car engine for hours and never know if it will run for a day or a lifetime.
The plaintiff is opening your program’s hood and looking forward to seeing if your program runs. You are saying it will because of the paper on the wall or the seal on your website. The trade association went through a checklist of items and issues to hand you a piece of paper. None of those items can guaranty the safety of the guest. All of those items can be used by the guest to prove the program liable and hold you and the trade association accountable.
As it applies to you when you are looking at marketing your program as well as when your clients are looking at your program. If you believe that a marketing program will protect you, you are not studying the program hard enough. Neither will accreditation guaranty the safety of your guests.
- Make sure you know what you are accomplishing before you start.
- Justify why you are going down that route.
- Make sure if your path can be interpreted two ways, that you cover both options to make them good ideas.
- If you find problems fix them immediately.
- You understand the difference between risk management and marketing.
What do you think? Leave a comment.
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© 2018 Recreation Law Recfirstname.lastname@example.org James H. Moss
Every business wants to increase its presence in the community and its business. One way members of the outdoor recreation industry do this is through marketing programs called accreditation.
Accreditation is a process where your business or program has met the necessary requirements that the trade association has created. The accreditation process usually incorporates meeting requirements or in many cases, standards created by the association to gauge whether the business or program should be accredited. If the business or program meets accreditation, then they can advertise that fact to the general public.
Accreditation also has come to mean that once you have achieved a level or completed the requirements and advertised that fact to the general public, the public has the right to expect that level of accomplishment from at all times. That is where accreditation can be as dangerous as it may be beneficial.
In Lesser v. Camp Wildwood, 282 F. Supp. 2d 139; 2003 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 16170, a camper was injured when the wind blew a branch out of a tree injuring him. The decision is on a motion in liminae. A motion in liminae is a motion where the judge decides what evidence or witnesses will be allowed to testify or in the trial. The plaintiff argues in the motion that the plaintiff will prove the defendant failed to meet the standards of the American Camping Association (ACA). The defendant camp was an accredited member of the ACA.
The accreditation process required the defendant camp to have an emergency plan for severe storms. The plan called for the campers to move as a group to the dining hall. In this case, a storm came up during a firework works display while the campers were at the waterfront. When the campers were told to leave the area and go to their cabins the plaintiff went a different way placing him in a position to be struck by the branch causing his injuries.
The court in the published decision stated that because the defendant camp “repeatedly claimed that they have complied with ACA standards, and that ACA camps are safer, then” other non-ACA camps. It was important for the plaintiff’s expert to prove that the camp had not followed the ACA standards.
The reason why this case is disturbing is because it set a level of care that was much higher than required under New York law. The defendant camp was located in New York, which is also where the suit was filed. Under New York law, the standard of care for camps was:
“schools, camps or similar institutions have a duty to exercise the same degree of care as would a reasonably prudent parent under similar circumstances.”
“…camps, like schools, “are not insurers of safety . . . for they cannot reasonably be expected to continuously supervise and control all movements and activities of students.”
“Organizers of recreational events “owe a duty to exercise only reasonable care to protect participants ‘from injuries arising out of unassumed, concealed or unreasonably increased risks”
“…constant supervision is neither feasible nor desirable because one of the benefits of such an institution is to inculcate self-reliance in the campers which an overly protective supervision would destroy”).”
Because the camp was accredited and held itself out to a higher standard, the court was going to allow testimony that the camp had failed to meet that standard of care that it advertised it met. The camp through its marketing program raised the standard it must meet in court from reasonable supervision and control to constant supervision and control. But for accreditation, the camp would not have been in the position in the lawsuit it found itself.
The definition of accreditation by the Council on Accreditation (COA) is a formal evaluation of an organization against accepted criteria or standards. (http://www.coastandards.org/glossary.php) The COA does not define “standard.” Even if the COA did define standard or if the standards written by the trade association defined the term “standard,” the definition will probably not matter in a court.
The standard of care is the level of acting or not acting that determines if a duty was breached to an injured person. If the duty existed, if the duty was then breached, if there were an injury and damages, a direct result of the breach of duty, then negligence has been proven. Violating a standard of care is then the first step the plaintiff must prove to recover damages from the defendant.
The vast majorities of the lawsuits for injuries are torts, which require the proof of negligence. If the defendants through their marketing program help the plaintiffs prove their cases in lawsuits against them is the marketing program of real value in the long run.
Jury instructions define “standard of care” as “a duty to use that degree of care which a person of similar age, experience and intelligence would ordinarily use under the same or similar circumstances.” A reasonable person is not an expert or a committee. It is one person in that situation at that time. That allows the defendant to argue and the jury to understand that no one is perfect and that what may be required in that situation is not the same as you would expect if the world was perfect.
Standards that lead to accreditation create unreasonable expectations that cannot be met or exceed what is legally required on the part of defendants. Lesser is a perfect example of that issue.
How does the jury determine the industry standard? It is presented to the jury by both sides of the litigation. Both the plaintiff and the defendant have the opportunity to argue the appropriate level of care or standard for the situation. This is normally accomplished through expert witnesses. Expert witnesses are people who study or work in the industry that can testify to the standard of care. Although this may seem archaic or costly, it gives the defendant a fighting chance. There is the opportunity to prove that the defendant did not act below the standard of care. It is then up to the jury to apply the facts, decide on the standard and determine if the defendant injured the plaintiff.
In Kearns v. Upper Columbia Conference of Seventh-Day Adventists, CV OC 0500538 4th District, Idaho, the plaintiff hired an expert witness who was an ACA Accreditation Visitor. An ACA Accreditation Visitor is hired by the camp to come to the camp and review the camp to see if the camp qualifies for accreditation. The visitor’s expert witness report listed numerous standards created by the ACA that the defendant camp had violated. The standards the defendant camp allegedly violated in several cases had nothing to do with the claims of the plaintiff. Yet the ACA standards were used to prove the defendant camp had acted in a way that was below the standard of care for a camp.
In Kearns, a person trained by the trade association in its standards, and accreditation process was hired to help defeat a member of the trade association. That was done using the standards created by the association to show the defendant camp was negligent.
Accreditation is not bad if it is understood and used the way it was envisioned: to show that educational institutions have met the minimum requirements to be a good college or university. Accreditation for colleges and universities looks at the facilities, the professors and their degrees and the ratio of professors to students. It evaluates whether or not the college will do a good job of educating students. The accreditation process is not created in a way that a college or university can be held liable to a student if the student is injured on camps. Accreditation done properly does not create a standard of care that a person will be held to in a lawsuit.
In July 1998, Adam Dzialo was permanently injured when he suffered a near drowning in the Deerfield River. He was part of a program fun by the Greenfield Community College. The college had recently undergone an accreditation review by the Association of Environmental Education (AEE). One of the issues the review highlighted was the college did not employ enough instructors in its paddlesports programs. This lack of instructors was a major issue in the lawsuit by the plaintiff to argue the college had not met the standard of care to the plaintiff. The suit settled eventually, but not before litigation was dismissed in state court and filed in federal court and the resulting several years of fees, costs and emotion.
To achieve accreditation, the trade associations have written standards that must be met by the program or business. Standards are the lowest allowable level of acting or not acting that a jury will allow a defendant to do or not do. That means if you act below the standard you have breached a duty of care, if you act above a standard, you have not breached a duty of care. Standards are difficult to write because that level of care changes over time, by location, and by the plaintiff. Standards then are written broadly but interpreted narrowly by the courts.
Standards are also written for all circumstances. Nothing is ever the same, even on paper. The standard of care owed by a program to a five-year-old is different from the standard of care owed to a sixteen-year-old. The standard of care owed when taking someone down a class, I river is different than the standard of care of taking someone down a Class IV river. However, we all know that river ratings are very subjective.
Think about any outdoor recreation trip or program you have participated in. Has it ever gone exactly as planned? Has everyone shown up exactly on time, arrived at the start when planned and carried all the right gear, and not too much gear? Has the weather always been what was forecasted and never been a problem Have all the participants had a great time, no bad days and no injuries. When you can consistently run your trips exactly as planned then you can apply standards to your trips because you know exactly how things are going to work. Nothing will go wrong that may lower the way the trip is run below the standard of care.
Additionally, the standards created by associations for its members tend to be goals rather than the minimum acceptable level of care. Consider the issues when a defendant is held to a goal as the minimal acceptable level of care in a court. There is no way that any defendant can meet a goal, when sometimes they cannot meet the minimal level of care.
Standards also change. Look at the progression of alpine skis over the past ten years. At one time, a ski 215 centimeters long and slightly wider than your foot was the standard found in most ski shops. Today the longest ski that can be found is 196 centimeters, and some look like water skis rather than skis to be used on snow. Skis used to arc with only the tips and tails touching when the basis of the skis are put together. Now the only part so the skis that touch is the area under the binding and the tips separate by inches. If the ski industry wrote standards for how ski areas are to operate, how fast could they react and update standards for skis that change yearly.
And what if the standard is wrong? Will the trade association show up in court and say they made a mistake the standard is incorrect. A standard that is wrong is still a standard. The plaintiff will argue it is correct, and the defendant will be forced to defend against a standard that they could not meet and is incorrect to begin with.
Research on standards means nothing in court. It does not matter if the standards are written with the best intention, and they are or with the best goals for the members of the association. Courtrooms are not places to test ideas or raise expectations of potential guests. Courtrooms are where decisions about the future of your business or program are made. You do not want some third party group of people, five years in the past, making that decision for you.
Standards don’t allow for experimentation or growth. If the standard does not allow you to try something new or exceeds the standard you are stuck in the past. Many standards soon become the Twilight Zone of an industry because they lag behind the new and better.
Why is accreditation being promoted in an industry? Money. Trade associations are paid a substantial amount of money so that their membership can post their seal of approval in their marketing. This income is a substantial part of the budget, and they will be hard-pressed to replace it. A trade association, that has created standards, is than caught in a financial bind. They must support their standards to maintain their current financial situation.
Litigation is emotional draining, very costly and takes years; and that is if you win. Society seems to be heading towards a situation where any injury should be the responsibility of someone else. If you make that easy for someone to sue you or to win the lawsuit, you have lost the battle before you have opened your doors for business.
Standards are written with no intention of being found in courts of law. However, this brief article points to three cases where the standards created by a trade association are used in court against the people the standards were created to help. It does not matter how much research can be found to support the creation of standards when they become the noose around a trade association member’s neck.
If the defendant is faced with a written standard, the plaintiff says they are violating, the expert witness of the defendant has two issues to prove or maybe the defendant must hire more experts. The first is the standards written by the association are not the standard in the industry. The second then is the standard is different.
Proving the trade association did not write standards is difficult. In most cases, it simply becomes an attack on the association showing it is not everything the association says it is. That the association does not represent the majority of people or business in its industry or that the majority of the membership is not accredited. This is an ugly fight.
Marketing is needed by everyone. On top of that we want our business or program to show we are more than good, that we are the best.
It does not matter how great the benefits of accreditation are, if the program is used to prove you negligent in a court of law. Accreditation may bring you more business; however, the cost of that additional business may not be enough to cover the lost time involved in litigation and increased cost of your insurance. Let alone the time and expense you put into meeting the accreditation.
Marketing makes Promises that Risk Management must pay for.
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 CJI-Civ. 9:9 (CLE Ed. 2009)