Decision supporting PA ski area when skier skied off the trail supported by the US Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit

The Federal District Court case, Vu v. Ski Liberty Operating Corp., et. al., 2018 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 49013 and reviewed in Under Pennsylvania law, a collision with other skiers or boarders is an inherent risk of skiing. Skiing off the trail because of the collision is also an inherent risk of skiing was upheld

Citation: Vu v. Ski Liberty Operating Corp., (the decision is so new, not id numbers have been assigned to it yet.

State: Pennsylvania

Plaintiff: Quan Vu and his spouse May Siew

Defendant: Ski Liberty Operating Corp., doing business as Liberty Mountain Resort; Snow Time, Inc.

Plaintiff Claims: negligent for, among other things, failing to keep the slope free from unsafe conditions, warn Vu of the dangerous condition, and erect a fence or boundary marker to prevent skiers from skiing over the edge and into the large rocks below and alleged loss of consortium

Defendant Defenses: No duty under the Pennsylvania Skier’s Responsibility Act (PSRA)

Holding: For the Defendant upholding the lower court decision

Year: 2019

Summary

A lower Federal District Court held that a skier assumed the risk when he skied off the trail and over a 3′-4′ embankment. The skier appealed and the Third Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the lower court holding the Pennsylvania Skier Responsibility Act created no duty on the part of the ski area.

Facts

On the evening of January 23, 2015, Vu was skiing down a trail at the Liberty Mountain Resort in Pennsylvania. At some point, Vu encountered a snowboarder, who “either cut [him] off or got awfully close” to him. To avoid colliding with the snowboarder, Vu “had a knee-jerk reaction to veer,” which led him toward the edge of the trail. Id. Vu skied over the edge, left the slope, and landed among a pile of rocks. He suffered multiple serious injuries, which he alleges were caused by his skiing over an unmarked, “artificial three to four-foot cliff at the slope’s edge” that was created by “the Defendants’ snowmaking and snow grooming practices.”

Vu’s daughter, who was skiing with him, testified that she did not see Vu ski off of the slope, but she did find him laying off of the trail. She stated that to get to her father, she had to exercise caution due to the height difference between the artificial snow and the natural terrain. She also testified that she had no “difficulty that evening discerning the edge of the trail.”

Dawson Disotelle was also present on the slope and witnessed the incident. He testified that he was snowboarding behind Vu and Vu’s daughter, and he saw that Vu’s “skis went to the left and his body went with [them] and he just went straight off the run.” Thereafter, Disotelle attempted to render assistance to Vu, which required Disotelle to “hop[] down” to where Vu was laying. According to Disotelle, the elevation change from the slope to where Vu landed was “[t]hree or four feet maybe,” and “it wasn’t a challenge to get down there.” Like Vu’s daughter, Disotelle testified that he was able to “easily” distinguish the skiable trail from off trail.

Analysis: making sense of the law based on these facts.

The appellate court simply looked at the Pennsylvania Skiers Responsibility Act (PSRA) and found the ski area had no duty to the Plaintiff Vu.

The PSRA establishes a “no-duty” rule for skiing injuries, relieving ski resorts of the “duty to protect skiers from risks that are ‘common, frequent, and expected,’ and thus ‘inherent’ to the sport.” The no-duty rule applies in this context when: (1) the plaintiff was “engaged in the sport of downhill skiing at the time of her injury”; and (2) the risk of the injury at issue “is one of the ‘inherent risks’ of downhill skiing.” When both prongs are met, summary judgment is warranted in favor of the ski resort “because, as a matter of law, [the plaintiff] cannot recover for her injuries.”

The court did have to look at case law and commented on the fact the Pennsylvania act did not identify risks that were inherent in skiing like most other skier safety acts did. “The PSRA “is unusual in its brevity and failure to give any definition of an ‘inherent’ risk of skiing….”

The court identified several cases that held that “…snow and ice, elevation, contour, speed and weather conditions, and falling from a ski lift…” where inherent to skiing.

Nor does the PRSA require proof that a skier assumed the risk, only that the injury “arose from a “general risk” inherent to the sport….” Consequently, the court found the risk of skiing off the edge of the trail over a three to four feet drop was inherent to skiing.

Not only does this risk appear to fall under the umbrella of elevation or contour (or both), which have been identified by Pennsylvania courts as inherent risks, but also other courts have recognized the more general risk of skiing off a trail as inherent to downhill skiing,

The court then added as support for its finding that what the Plaintiff Vu encountered was an inherent risk but that Vu had been skiing for twenty years and was skiing black diamond runs or the most difficult slopes.

So Now What?

The Pennsylvania Skiers Responsibility Act is the weakest of most of the ski area statutes because it does not define what the inherent risks of skiing are. However, the courts in Pennsylvania have done a fairly good job of determining, based on case law and statutes from other states what are the inherent risks of skiing.

However, because the inherent risks are not defined, the plaintiffs are going to continue to test the issues because there is a chance they can win.

What do you think? Leave a comment.

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Vu v. Ski Liberty Operating Corp.,

Vu v. Ski Liberty Operating Corp.,

Quan Vu; May Siew, Appellants

v.

Ski Liberty Operating Corp., doing business as Liberty Mountain Resort; Snow Time, Inc.

No. 18-1769

United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit

February 12, 2019

NOT PRECEDENTIAL

Submitted Pursuant to Third Circuit L.A.R. 34.1(a) January 22, 2019

On Appeal from the United States District Court for the Middle District of Pennsylvania (D.C. No. 1:16-cv-02170) District Judge: Hon. John E. Jones, III

Before: CHAGARES and BIBAS, Circuit Judges, and SÁNCHEZ, Chief District Judge [+].

OPINION [*]

CHAGARES, CIRCUIT JUDGE.

Appellants Quan Vu and his spouse, May Siew (collectively, “the plaintiffs”), brought this action against the defendants, Ski Liberty Operating Corporation, d/b/a Liberty Mountain Resort and Snow Time, Inc., for damages relating to injuries Vu suffered while skiing at Liberty Mountain Resort. The defendants successfully moved for summary judgment, and the plaintiffs now appeal. Because we conclude that the plaintiffs’ cause of action is barred by the Pennsylvania Skier’s Responsibility Act, 42 Pa. Cons. Stat. § 7102(c) (“PSRA”), we will affirm.

I.

We write principally for the parties and therefore recite only those facts necessary to our decision. On the evening of January 23, 2015, Vu was skiing down a trail at the Liberty Mountain Resort in Pennsylvania. At some point, Vu encountered a snowboarder, who “either cut [him] off or got awfully close” to him. Appendix (“App.”) 314. To avoid colliding with the snowboarder, Vu “had a knee-jerk reaction to veer,” which led him toward the edge of the trail. Id. Vu skied over the edge, left the slope, and landed among a pile of rocks. He suffered multiple serious injuries, which he alleges were caused by his skiing over an unmarked, “artificial three to four-foot cliff at the slope’s edge” that was created by “the Defendants’ snowmaking and snow grooming practices.” Vu Br. 4.

Vu’s daughter, who was skiing with him, testified that she did not see Vu ski off of the slope, but she did find him laying off of the trail. She stated that to get to her father, she had to exercise caution due to the height difference between the artificial snow and the natural terrain. She also testified that she had no “difficulty that evening discerning the edge of the trail.” App. 74-75.

Dawson Disotelle was also present on the slope and witnessed the incident. He testified that he was snowboarding behind Vu and Vu’s daughter, and he saw that Vu’s “skis went to the left and his body went with [them] and he just went straight off the run.” App. 124-25. Thereafter, Disotelle attempted to render assistance to Vu, which required Disotelle to “hop[] down” to where Vu was laying. App. 143. According to Disotelle, the elevation change from the slope to where Vu landed was “[t]hree or four feet maybe,” and “it wasn’t a challenge to get down there.” Id. Like Vu’s daughter, Disotelle testified that he was able to “easily” distinguish the skiable trail from off trail. App. 129.

The plaintiffs filed a two-count complaint in October 2016. The first count alleged that the defendants were negligent for, among other things, failing to keep the slope free from unsafe conditions, warn Vu of the dangerous condition, and erect a fence or boundary marker to prevent skiers “from skiing over the edge and into the large rocks below.” App. 902-03. In the second count, Siew alleged loss of consortium.

The defendants moved for summary judgment, arguing in part that the plaintiffs’ action was barred because “skiing off trail and colliding into rocks . . . is an inherent risk” of downhill skiing. App. 784. The District Court agreed and granted the motion. The plaintiffs now appeal.

II.

The District Court had diversity jurisdiction pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 1332, and we have jurisdiction under 28 U.S.C. § 1291. We exercise plenary review over the grant of summary judgment, Bjorgung v. Whitetail Resort, LP, 550 F.3d 263, 268 (3d Cir. 2008), and must ascertain whether the movant has “show[n] that there is no genuine dispute as to any material fact and the movant is entitled to judgment as a matter of law,” Fed.R.Civ.P. 56(a). A dispute is genuine “if the evidence is such that a reasonable jury could return a verdict for the nonmoving party,” and a fact is material if it “might affect the outcome of the suit under the governing law.” Anderson v. Liberty Lobby, Inc., 477 U.S. 242, 248 (1986). In conducting this analysis, we “view the facts in the light most favorable to the non-moving party.” Bjorgung, 550 F.3d at 268.

III.

In this action based on diversity jurisdiction, we apply Pennsylvania law. See Chamberlain v. Giampapa, 210 F.3d 154, 158 (3d Cir. 2000). The statute upon which this case turns is the PSRA, which acknowledges that “there are inherent risks in the sport of downhill skiing,” 42 Pa. Cons. Stat. § 7102(c)(1), and, for that reason, “preserves assumption of risk as a defense to negligence suits stemming from downhill skiing injuries,” Smith v. Seven Springs Farm, Inc., 716 F.2d 1002, 1007 (3d Cir. 1983).

The PSRA establishes a “no-duty” rule for skiing injuries, relieving ski resorts of the “duty to protect skiers from risks that are ‘common, frequent, and expected,’ and thus ‘inherent’ to the sport.” Chepkevich v. Hidden Valley Resort, L.P., 2 A.3d 1174, 1186 (Pa. 2010). The no-duty rule applies in this context when: (1) the plaintiff was “engaged in the sport of downhill skiing at the time of her injury”; and (2) the risk of the injury at issue “is one of the ‘inherent risks’ of downhill skiing.” Hughes v. Seven Springs Farm, Inc., 762 A.2d 339, 344 (Pa. 2000). When both prongs are met, summary judgment is warranted in favor of the ski resort “because, as a matter of law, [the plaintiff] cannot recover for her injuries.” Id.

The PSRA “is unusual in its brevity and failure to give any definition of an ‘inherent’ risk of skiing,” Chepkevich, 2 A.3d at 1188 n.15, so we turn to caselaw for guidance. The Pennsylvania Supreme Court has identified collisions with other skiers, “snow and ice, elevation, contour, speed and weather conditions,” Hughes, 762 A.2d at 344, and falling from a ski lift, Chepkevich, 2 A.3d at 1188, as inherent risks. It has also instructed other courts to adopt “a practical and logical interpretation of what risks are inherent to the sport,” id. at 1187-88, and explained that invocation of the PSRA does not require proof that the injured skier assumed the “specific risk” that caused injury – only that the injury arose from a “general risk” inherent to the sport, id. at 1188.

Applying this guidance, we conclude that the plaintiffs’ action is barred by the PSRA. The plaintiffs do not dispute that the first prong – “engaged in the sport of downhill skiing,” Hughes, 762 A.2d at 344 – is met. Only the “inherent risk” prong is at issue on appeal, and it is also satisfied.

The risk identified by the plaintiffs as causing Vu’s injuries is skiing off of a trail edge that was three to four feet above the natural terrain, which we conclude is inherent to the sport of downhill skiing.[1] Cf. Smith-Wille v. Ski Shawnee, Inc., 35 Pa. D. & C. 5th 473, 475, 484 (Pa. Ct. Com. Pl. 2014) (holding, where a skier was injured after losing control on an icy slope and crashing into a fence running along the edge of a ski trail, that “[t]he edge of the ski slope . . . [is an] inherent risk[] of skiing,” as is “[s]triking a protective fence designating and protecting skiers from the edge of the trail”). Not only does this risk appear to fall under the umbrella of elevation or contour (or both), which have been identified by Pennsylvania courts as inherent risks, Hughes, 762 A.2d at 344, but also other courts have recognized the more general risk of skiing off a trail as inherent to downhill skiing, see Nutbrown v. Mount Cranmore, Inc., 671 A.2d 548, 553 (N.H. 1996) (holding that when “the chief cause of [the plaintiff’s] injuries” was the “quintessential risk . . . that a skier might lose control and ski off the trail,” he “may not recover against a ski area operator for resulting injuries”); cf. Bjorgung, 550 F.3d at 265, 269 (holding that the PSRA barred a competitive skier’s cause of action where he was injured after he skied into the woods off of a trail because the failure to set safety netting or “fix a race course in a way that minimizes the potential for the competitors to lose control” were inherent risks of ski racing).

Given “the clear legislative intent to preserve the assumption of the risk doctrine in this particular area, as well as the broad wording of the Act itself,” the District Court correctly concluded that skiing over a slope edge and leaving the trail is an inherent risk of downhill skiing from which the defendants had no duty to protect Vu. Chepkevich, 2 A.3d at 1187. That is particularly true because Vu – who had been skiing for more than twenty years as of January 2015 and could ski black diamond, or the “most difficult,” slopes, App. 908, 1025 – acknowledges “that downhill skiing is a dangerous, risk sport” and “that if he skied off trail, he could encounter trees[ and] rocks,” App. 909, 911, 1025, 1027, and because Vu’s daughter and Disotelle both testified that they had no trouble discerning the slope edge, and on trail from off trail, on January 23, 2015.

The plaintiffs unsuccessfully make four related arguments, which we briefly address. To begin, they make much of the fact that the elevation difference between the slope edge and the natural terrain “was not a naturally occurring condition” but rather the result of the defendants’ grooming or making artificial snow. Vu Br. 5. This distinction is of no import for two reasons. First, the PSRA is concerned with the general, not the specific, risk that allegedly caused injury. Chepkevich, 2 A.3d at 1188. The general risk at issue is skiing over a slope edge (natural or not) and encountering off-trail conditions. Second, the PSRA bars recovery not only for injuries due to naturally occurring conditions, but also for injuries due to any “common, frequent, and expected” risk. Id. at 1186. Indeed, it has been invoked to preclude actions relating to PVC piping on a fence, Smith-Wille, 35 Pa. D. & C. 5th at 484, snowmaking equipment, Glasser v. Seven Springs Mountain Resort, 6 Pa. D. & C. 5th 25, 29 (Pa. Ct. Com. Pl. 2008), aff’d, 986 A.2d 1290 (Pa. Super. Ct. 2009), a ski lift, Chepkevich, 2 A.3d at 1188, and “wheel ruts on a ski slope created by an ATV,” Kibler v. Blue Knob Recreation, Inc., 184 A.3d 974, 980-81 (Pa. Super. Ct. 2018). Although none of those causes of injury are naturally occurring conditions, they were all found to be inherent risks of downhill skiing.

Second, the plaintiffs contend that the “unguarded existence” of this slope made of artificial snow “is a deviation from the standard of care in the skiing industry,” apparently attempting to invoke the exception to the no-duty rule explained in Jones v. Three Rivers Management Corp., 394 A.2d 546 (Pa. 1978). Vu Br. 14. Pursuant to Jones, although sports facilities and amusement parks have no duty to protect against inherent risks, a plaintiff may recover from one such establishment for injury caused by an inherent risk if she “introduces adequate evidence that the amusement facility . . . deviated in some relevant respect from established custom.” Jones, 394 A.2d at 550-51. The plaintiffs have not provided support for this assertion beyond their expert’s report, [2] which does not clearly identify any industry standard from which the defendants are supposed to have deviated, but instead merely asserts that they violated generally accepted practices within the industry.[3]

Third, the plaintiffs seem to assert that the District Court improperly resolved a disputed issue of material fact in the defendants’ favor because reasonable jurors could disagree whether a slope edge with a three to four-foot elevation difference is an inherent risk. We reject this argument because the record citation provided does not support the plaintiffs’ contention, and the cases upon which the plaintiffs rely are inapposite, one involving the application of Vermont law and the other (predating Hughes and Chepkevich) applying a no-duty standard different from the standard espoused in those two cases.

Fourth, the plaintiffs also contend that the legislative intent behind the PSRA could not have been to encourage “the creation of artificial, Defendant-made ‘cliffs’ along . . . trail edges.” Vu Br. 6. For all of the reasons already discussed, we reject this argument as well.

In sum, we conclude that the plaintiffs’ injuries were caused by risks inherent to downhill skiing, satisfying the second prong of the Hughes test. Because it is undisputed that Vu was “engaged in the sport of downhill skiing at the time of [his] injur[ies],” the first prong is also met, such that summary judgment in favor of the defendants was properly granted. Hughes, 762 A.2d at 344.

IV.

For the aforementioned reasons, we will affirm the judgment of the District Court.

Notes:

[+] The Honorable Juan Sánchez, Chief United States District Judge for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, sitting by designation.

[*]This disposition is not an opinion of the full Court and, pursuant to I.O.P. 5.7, does not constitute binding precedent.

[1] To the extent that the plaintiffs allege that Vu’s injuries resulted from his attempt to avoid a collision with a snowboarder, we conclude that that risk is also inherent to downhill skiing. See Hughes, 762 A.2d at 345.

[2] The defendants argue that the expert report is unsworn and therefore may not be considered on a motion for summary judgment. Given our conclusion, we need not address this contention.

[3] The plaintiffs also point to evidence of “other skiers being injured at [Liberty Mountain Resort] in the exact same manner” on other slopes during previous seasons. Vu Br. 11-12. Such evidence does not identify any industry custom or Liberty Mountain Resort’s deviation from it.


Pennsylvania case reviews the requirements for a valid release in ski accident claim.

Cahill v. Ski Liberty Operating Corp., 2006 Pa. Dist. & Cnty. Dec. LEXIS 444; 81 Pa. D. & C.4th 344

Release barred claims for injuries from falling on icy slopes

The plaintiff was a season pass holder at the defendant’s resort and an expert skier. While skiing one day he fell on an icy spot created when a snowmaking hydrant malfunctioned and spread water around the area which froze.

Ski Liberty requires season pass holders to sign a release. To get a season pass, skiers first sign up on-line. The online sign up required the plaintiff to click through an acknowledgement of the terms of the season pass which included the release.

A skier then had to sign a written release at the time the season pass was picked up or at the resort. The court specifically set forth the following issues it found important in determining the validity of the release. The release stated the parties intended to be legally bound. That information was conspicuous location above the signature line.

The plaintiff sued because “Ski Liberty was negligent for failing to maintain the ski slopes in a safe manner and/or failing to adequately warn concerning the icy area.” The plaintiff’s injuries were to his face, back, ribs and left hand. The plaintiff’s wife sued for loss of consortium.

What I found interesting was the plaintiff claimed that he did not know there was ice on the slope. I’ve skied through the east and a lot in Pennsylvania. The slopes are all ice, finding snow is the rare occasion.

Summary of the case

The decision starts with the court quoting the Pennsylvania Supreme Court requirements for a valid release.

The contract must not contravene any policy of the law. It must be a contract between individuals relating to their private affairs. Each party must be a free bargaining agent, not simply one drawn into an adhesion contract, with no recourse but to reject the entire transaction…[T]o be enforceable, several additional standards must be met. First, we must construe the agreement strictly and against the party asserting it. Finally, the agreement must spell out the intent of the parties with the utmost particularity.

The court then found the requirements were met by the release at issue. The plaintiff was not forced to enter the contract but did so voluntarily. There was no evidence of coercion or inducement. The activity, skiing, is recreational and not essential to the plaintiff’s personal or economic well-being. The release does not contravene public policy because the issues were private in nature and did not affect the rights of the public.

The court then reviewed the Pennsylvania ski statute and found the statute pointed out that skiing had risks. The court also found the statute suggested it was the policy of the state of Pennsylvania to enforce the doctrine of assumption of risk who engages in skiing.

The language of the release spelled out with particularity the intent of the parties. The captions clearly advise the signor of the content and purpose of the release and worked as a notice of the risk as well as a release of liability. The release then in bold letters released the defendant of any liability.

The application of the releases to use of Ski Liberty facilities is not only spelled out specifically in the document but is reinforced by other references to the releases throughout the body of the document.

The court then looked at the plaintiff’s argument that a hazardous condition created by the defendant and known by the defendant is not an inherent risk to the sport of skiing. If the risk was not inherent, then the plaintiff argued the release was void and assumption of risk did not apply.

The court did not agree and dismissed the plaintiff’s argument with a great statement.

His [plaintiff’s] experience undoubtedly has taught him that the sport of skiing is not conducted in the pristine and controlled atmosphere of a laboratory but rather occurs in the often hostile and fickle atmosphere of a south central Pennsylvania winter. Those familiar with skiing, such as Cahill, are aware that nature’s snow is regularly supplemented with a man-made variety utilizing water and a complex system of sprayers, hydrants, and pipes. Human experience also teaches us that water equipment frequently leaves puddles which, in freezing temperatures, will rapidly turn to ice. The risks caused by this variety of ever-changing factors are not only inherent in downhill skiing but, perhaps, are the very nature of the sport.

So Now What?

The decision outlines quite plainly. What is needed to write a release in Pennsylvania. More importantly it points out several points that courts look for to determine if the defendant as acting in a way as to not hide the release and to make sure the defendant truly understood what they were signing.

Those items include:

·        Conspicuous notice of the legal purpose of the document

·        Plenty of time to review the release before signing

·        Captions that point out the legal ramifications rather than hiding them

·        Important language in the release in bold print

·        A release written in plain English that is understandable by the signor

·        A section that explains the possible risks of the activity

·        References in the document to outside sources to assist the signor in understanding the document

Courts hate to uphold releases where there is nothing but the pure letter of the contract to rely upon. If the release clearly informed the signor of the risks and the signor had to have known they were signing a release, then the court can easily decide for the defendant.

Plaintiffs: Timothy Joseph Cahill and Anne Leslie Cahill

Defendants: Ski Liberty Operating Corp. t/d/b/a Ski Liberty and t/d/b/a Liberty Mountain Resort and Snow Time, Inc.,

Plaintiff Claims: Ski Liberty was negligent for failing to properly maintain the ski slopes in a safe manner and/or failing to adequately warn concerning the icy area.

Defendant Defenses: Release and Assumption of the Risk

Holding: Release was valid and barred the claims of the plaintiffs

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Cahill v. Ski Liberty Operating Corp., 2006 Pa. Dist. & Cnty. Dec. LEXIS 444; 81 Pa. D. & C.4th 344

Cahill v. Ski Liberty Operating Corp., 2006 Pa. Dist. & Cnty. Dec. LEXIS 444; 81 Pa. D. & C.4th 344

Timothy Joseph Cahill and Anne Leslie Cahill, Plaintiffs v. Ski Liberty Operating Corp. t/d/b/a Ski Liberty and t/d/b/a Liberty Mountain Resort and Snow Time, Inc., Defendants

06-8-29 1

1 The parties consistently used the incorrect caption throughout their pleadings. Apparently, the Defendants misread the caption number on the Writ of Summons issued in this matter to read 06-8-29 rather than the proper caption number of 06-S-29. When the Defendants praeciped for a rule to file a complaint, their Praecipe carried the wrong number. All subsequent pleadings have duplicated that initial error. Accordingly, all are advised that the correct caption number, 06-S-29, should be used on all pleadings henceforth.

COMMON PLEAS COURT OF ADAMS COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA

2006 Pa. Dist. & Cnty. Dec. LEXIS 444; 81 Pa. D. & C.4th 344

November 14, 2006, Decided

JUDGES: [*1] MICHAEL A. GEORGE, Judge.

OPINION BY: MICHAEL A. GEORGE

OPINION

CIVIL

OPINION

[**345] On January 17, 2004, Timothy Joseph Cahill 2 was skiing at the Liberty Mountain Ski Resort located in Carroll Valley, Adams County, Pennsylvania. 3 Cahill, an experienced skier, enjoyed skiing privileges at Ski Liberty through his purchase of a season pass. Cahill applied for the 2003-2004 season pass through a website operated by Ski Liberty. In order to complete the application, the website required Cahill to acknowledge that he agreed to the terms of a “season pass and advantage card release agreement” by clicking the “okay” box on the web page. The web page included an explanation of the terms which included a release and assumption of risk clause. Cahill’s application on the website was followed up with a written [**346] application which Cahill signed on January 11, 2004. In a conspicuous location immediately above his signature, the written application provides that he agreed to be legally bound by the “Notice of Risk”, “Assumption of Risk”, “Release from Liability”, and “Acknowledgement” provided to him by Ski Liberty. 4

2 Timothy Joseph Cahill will be referred to throughout this pleading as “Cahill.” Plaintiff, Anne Leslie Cahill, [*2] is the wife of Timothy Joseph Cahill and has filed a derivative claim for loss of consortium.

3 Liberty Mountain Ski Resort is owned and operated by Snow Time, Inc., which is a Delaware corporation operating in Adams County. Collectively, the parties will be referred to as “Ski Liberty.”

4 Both the website and the written documents accompanying the application provide as follows:

NOTICE OF RISK

I understand and accept the fact that snowsports (skiing…) in their various forms, including the use of lifts are dangerous with inherent and other risks. These risks include but are not limited to… ice and icy conditions… All of the inherent and other risks of snowsports present the risk of permanent catastrophic injury or death.

ASSUMPTION OF RISK

Understanding and agreeing that snowsports are hazardous, I voluntarily and expressly assume for myself the risk of injury while participating in these sports.

RELEASE FROM LIABILITY

In consideration of the use of the ski area’s facilities, I AGREE NOT TO SUE Ski Liberty Operating Corp., Whitetail Mountain Operating Corp., and/or Ski Roundtop Operating Corp., their owners, agents and employees, if injured while using the facilities, regardless of any negligence [*3] on the part of the Ski Area or its employees.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In consideration of being permitted to use the facilities at Liberty Mountain Resort, Whitetail Mountain Resort and Ski Roundtop, I expressly acknowledge:

1. I have read and understand the “Notice of Risk.” “Assumption of Risk,” “Release from Liability,” “Be Aware, Ski with Care,” and “Your Responsibility Code.”

3. I voluntarily assume for myself all the risks involved in snowsports.

(emphasis in original)

On the date in question, Cahill fell on an icy area while skiing near the bottom of Eastwind and Strata slopes. He claims that although he was unaware of ice in this area, Ski Liberty knew of the danger since, during the previous [**347] evening, a snow-making water hydrant broke releasing water which ultimately froze into ice because of the cold conditions. As a result of his fall, Cahill claims to have severely injured his face, back, ribs, and left hand. A Complaint was filed on March 17, 2006, claiming that Ski Liberty was negligent for failing to properly maintain the ski slopes in a safe manner and/or failing to adequately warn concerning the icy area. Ski Liberty has filed an Answer with New Matter alleging Cahill assumed the [*4] risk of his injuries and released Ski Liberty from all liability. Ski Liberty currently moves for judgment on the pleadings.

[HN1] A motion for judgment on the pleadings is in the nature of a demurrer as it provides the means to test the legal sufficiency of the pleadings. All of the [P]laintiffs’ allegations must be taken as true for the purposes of judgment on the pleadings. Bata v. Central Penn National Bank of Philadelphia, 423 Pa. 373, 224 A.2d 174, 178 (Pa. 1966). Unlike a motion for summary judgment, the power of the court to enter a judgment on the pleadings is limited by the requirement that the court consider only the pleadings themselves and any documents properly attached thereto. Nederostek v. Endicott-Johnson Shoe Co., 415 Pa. 136, 202 A.2d 72, 73 (Pa. 1964). A motion for judgment on the pleadings should be granted only where the pleadings demonstrate that no genuine issue of fact exists and the moving party is entitled to judgment as a matter of law. Dunn v. Board of Property Assessment, Appeals & Review of Allegheny County, 877 A.2d 504 510 n. 12 (Pa. Cmwlth. 2005). Since I find that the release entitles Ski Liberty to judgment as a matter of law, the Complaint will be dismissed.

[HN2] [**348] Although disfavored [*5] under Pennsylvania law, exculpatory agreements, or releases, are valid provided they comply with the safeguards enunciated by our Superior Court in Zimmer v. Mitchell and Ness, 253 Pa. Super. 474, 385 A.2d 437 (Pa. Super. 1978), aff’d, 490 Pa. 428, 416 A.2d 1010 (Pa. 1980) as follows:

The contract must not contravene any policy of the law. It must be a contract between individuals relating to their private affairs. Each party must be a free bargaining agent, not simply one drawn into an adhesion contract, with no recourse but to reject the entire transaction…[T]o be enforceable, several additional standards must be met. First, we must construe the agreement strictly and against the party asserting it. Finally, the agreement must spell out the intent of the parties with the utmost particularity.

Id. at 439. Applying this criteria, I find the releases executed by Cahill to be valid.

The pleadings support a conclusion that the present agreement is not one of adhesion. Cahill was not forced to enter into the contract, but did so voluntarily in order to ski at Liberty Mountain. The agreement between the parties related to Cahill’s engaging in a matter of personal choice without any evidence of coercion or inducement negating [*6] the volitional nature of his act. Clearly, this activity is not essential to Cahill’s personal or economic well-being but, rather, was a purely recreational activity. See Kotovsky v. Ski Liberty Operating Corporation, 412 Pa. Super. 442, 603 A.2d 663 (Pa. Super. 1992) (holding that exculpatory agreement signed by skier injured in downhill race was valid).

[**349] The releases also do not contravene public policy. The clauses were purely private in nature and in no way affect the rights of the public. In fact, [HN3] releases such as that before the Court are actually in furtherance of public policy. Our state legislature, in enacting 42 Pa.C.S.A. § 7102(c) (relating to comparative negligence), specifically recognized that there are inherent risks in the sport of downhill skiing and specifically preserved the doctrine of assumption of risk as it applied to downhill skiing injuries and damages. 42 Pa.C.S.A. § 7102(c). This suggests that it is the policy in this Commonwealth to enforce the doctrine of assumption of risk for persons knowingly engaging in downhill skiing. Kotovsky, 603 A.2d at 666.

The releases executed by Cahill are unambiguous in both their language and intent. The language spells out with particularity [*7] the intent of the parties. The captions clearly advise patrons of the contents and purpose of the document as both a notice of risk and a release of liability. The waiver uses plain language informing the skier that downhill skiing is a dangerous sport with inherent risks including ice and icy conditions as well as other forms of natural or man-made obstacles, the condition of which vary constantly due to weather changes and use. Importantly, after advising a patron of these dangers, the documents unequivocally, in both bold and capital letters, releases Ski Liberty from liability for any injuries suffered while using the ski facilities regardless of any negligence on the part of Ski Liberty, its employees, or agents. The application of the releases to use of Ski Liberty facilities is not only spelled out specifically in the document but is reinforced by other references to the releases throughout the body of the document.

[**350] Cahill received, and acknowledged receipt, of the release from liability on two separate occasions. Notably, the first occasion appears to have been well in advance of the sale thereby allowing him ample opportunity to read it before using the facilities. 5 This factual [*8] background reveals that the intent of the parties was imminently clear and spelled out with the utmost particularity in plain language. Therefore, under the criteria set forth in Zimmer, the releases are valid.

5 The written application reveals an order date for the season pass of October 31, 2003 which circumstantially establishes the date application was submitted by Cahill over the internet.

Perhaps in recognition of the viability of the releases at issue, Cahill does not challenge their validity but, rather, disputes their application to the current facts. In this regard, Cahill suggests that a hazardous condition created by Ski Liberty, and known to exist by the resort, is not an inherent risk to the sport of skiing thereby making the exculpatory agreements and assumption of risk doctrine inapplicable. In support of this argument, Cahill cites Crews v. Seven Springs Mountain Resort, 2005 PA Super 138, 874 A.2d 100 (Pa. Super. 2005). In Crews, the Superior Court reviewed the trial court’s dismissal of a complaint wherein the plaintiff sought damages for injuries received when the plaintiff was involved in a collision with another snowboarder who was a minor under the influence of alcohol. In reversing [*9] the trial court, the Superior Court concluded that the plaintiff did not assume the risk of a collision with an underage drinker on a snowboard since the same is not an inherent risk of the sport of skiing.

Cahill’s reliance on Crews is misplaced. Primarily, Crews specifically limited the issue before the court to an [**351] analysis of the application of the assumption of risk doctrine. Instantly, this Court addresses a separate and distinct issue concerning the validity of an exculpatory agreement. Although these different issues are dealt with simultaneously in a number of court opinions, they are indeed distinguishable and require separate analysis. Compare Zimmer v. Mitchell and Ness, supra with Crews v. Seven Springs Mountain Resort, supra. Accordingly, I find Crews to be inapplicable to the issue of whether the release agreement entered by Cahill is valid.

Since I have found that Cahill knowingly and voluntarily entered into an exculpatory agreement releasing Ski Liberty from both the inherent dangers of downhill skiing and any negligence on the part of Ski Liberty or its employees, it is not necessary to undertake a detailed analysis of application of the assumption of risk doctrine [*10] to the current matter. Nevertheless, as noted, our legislature has expressly preserved assumption of risk as a defense to actions for downhill skiing injuries. 42 Pa.C.S.A. § 7102(c). Moreover, Ski Liberty provided Cahill prior and detailed notice of the dangerous and inherent risks of skiing. The notice is both thorough and exhaustive. Cahill is an experienced skier who obviously has personal knowledge of the inherent dangers involved in the sport. His experience undoubtedly has taught him that the sport of skiing is not conducted in the pristine and controlled atmosphere of a laboratory but rather occurs in the often hostile and fickle atmosphere of a south central Pennsylvania winter. Those familiar with skiing, such as Cahill, are aware that nature’s snow is regularly supplemented with a man- [**352] made variety utilizing water and a complex system of sprayers, hydrants, and pipes. Human experience also teaches us that water equipment frequently leaves puddles which, in freezing temperatures, will rapidly turn to ice. The risks caused by this variety of ever-changing factors are not only inherent in downhill skiing but, perhaps, are the very nature of the sport. The self-apparent risks [*11] were accepted by Cahill when he voluntarily entered into a business relationship with Ski Liberty. He chose to purchase a ski ticket in exchange for the opportunity to experience the thrill of downhill skiing. In doing so, he voluntarily assumed the risks that not only accompany the sport but may very well add to its attractiveness.

Since I find the exculpatory agreement valid, Cahill’s claim cannot be sustained. Similarly, Mrs. Cahill’s derivative claim for loss of consortium must also automatically fail as a matter of law. See Kiers by Kiers v. Weber National Stores, Inc., 352 Pa. Super. 111, 507 A.2d 406 (Pa. Super. 1986); Scattaregia v. Shin Shen Wu, 343 Pa. Super. 452, 495 A.2d 552 (Pa. Super. 1985); and Little v. Jarvis, 219 Pa. Super. 156, 280 A.2d 617 (Pa. Super. 1971).

For the foregoing reasons, Defendants’ Motion for Judgment on the Pleadings is granted.

BY THE COURT:

MICHAEL A. GEORGE

Judge

Date filed: November 14, 2006

ORDER

AND NOW, this 14<th> day of November, 2006, for the reasons set forth in the attached Opinion, Defendants’ Motion for Judgment on the Pleadings is granted. The Prothonotary is directed to enter judgment in favor of the Defendants, Ski Liberty Operating Corp. and Snow Time, Inc.

BY THE COURT:

MICHAEL A. GEORGE

Judge