The one group of people who never sign a release and to whom you have no defenses are spectators. Here a spectator was injured during a bicycle race.

In this case, the plaintiff attempted to bring in USA Cycling, Inc. Spectators are always at risk, and defendants have little they can do to keep from getting sued except fencing in most cases.

Levine v USA Cycling, Inc., 2018 N.Y. Misc. LEXIS 6063; 2018 NY Slip Op 33177(U)

State: New York: Supreme Court of New York, Kings County

Plaintiff: Steven Levine

Defendant: USA Cycling, Inc. & Kissena Cycling Club

Plaintiff Claims:

Defendant Defenses: Sponsor, now in control of event

Holding: For the defendants

Year: 2018


Plaintiff Cyclists riding inside the race course was injured when a racer struck him. The plaintiff sued the club that put on the event and USA Cycling, Inc. that sanctioned the event. USA Cycling moved for summary judgment arguing it owed no duty to the plaintiff because it had no control over and did not do anything other than sanction the race.


In the underlying matter, the plaintiff seeks to recover for personal injuries allegedly sustained while cycling in Prospect Park, Brooklyn, New York on June 14, 2014. At the same time the plaintiff was cycling as a recreational activity, a cycling event was taking place in the same area of Prospect Park. The plaintiff was cycling the same route as those participating in the event when he collided with another cyclist who was a participant in the bike race.

As a result of injuries sustained by the plaintiff, which included a fractured and displaced clavicle that required surgical intervention….

Analysis: making sense of the law based on these facts.

The defendant USA Cycling was brought into the case to possibly add money to the pot that might be available to the defendant. USA Cycling argued that because they did not own, control or have anything to do with the race other than to sponsor the race for a fee, they could not be held liable for anything that happened.

The court distilled the plaintiff’s claims and the defendant’s defenses into a single argument:

At issue in this matter, is whether defendant USA Cycling owed a duty to the plaintiff and by virtue thereof is liable to the plaintiff for the injuries sustained during the bike tour.

USA Cycling argued the following:

… USA Cycling did not coordinate the Prospect Park event; did not control or employ any of the people organizing or managing or working the race; did not select the location of the race nor supervise the race. They did not have any employees or representatives at the race. In addition, they are not the parent company of Kissena Cycling Club nor is Kissena Cycling Club a subsidiary of USA Cycling.

Mr. Sowl testified at his deposition that while USA Cycling sanctions events in the United States they do not run cycling events. Mr. Sowl stated that while there are benefits to a third party such as Kissena Cycling Club for having an event sanctioned by USA Cycling which includes that a cyclist participating in the event can use the results for upgrading their national results and rankings and the third-party event organizers can independently obtain liability insurance for their event through USA Cycling, he nevertheless maintained that they have no involvement in the operation of the race or the design of the course.

It USA Cycling did not owe the defendant a duty, then there was no negligence. The court defined negligence under New York law as:

To establish a prima facie case of negligence, a plaintiff must demonstrate (a) a duty owed by the defendant to the plaintiff, (2) a breach thereof, and (3) injury proximately resulting therefrom. In the absence of a duty, there is no breach and without a breach there is no liability

So, the issue is, did USA Cycling’s involvement in the race rise to the level that it owed a duty to the plaintiff.

The plaintiff argued the involvement was much more than just providing insurance for the race.

They [USA Cycling] collect some fees to compensate for sanctioning the event and provide insurance for the event.

The plaintiff maintains that the defendant did more than just sanction the race as they issued safety guidelines, rule books, post event forms, permits, an event checklist and insurance information to the Kissena Cycling Club, and even received a copy of the incident report.

The court found the actions of USA Cycling did not rise to the level to create a duty to the plaintiff.

USA Cycling is the national governing body for cycling in the United States. They oversee the discipline of road, mountain bike, Cyc-cross, BMS and track cycling. Mr. Sowl testified that except for a few national championships, they do not actually run events. While they sanction events, the events are generally owned and operated by a third party (such as the Kissena Cycling Club). In sanctioning the race at Prospect Park, USA Cycling recognized the event as an official event and the results when considering national rankings. However, while they sanction events they do not sponsor them. The chief referee at the event is an independent contractor who works for the event organizer and not USA Cycling. Mr. Sowl further testified that USA Cycling does not share in any portion of the fees that are generated by the local events.

The court found USA Cycling had no control over the race. This lack of control could not create a duty to the plaintiff.

This Court finds that the plaintiff has not established a prima facie case that the defendant USA Cycling had a duty to the plaintiff, and not having a duty was not negligent, and thus, not liable to the plaintiff. This Court finds that USA Cycling was not responsible for the layout and design of the race course, and all of the safety precautions that were in place on the day of the race were supervised by the employees and volunteers of Kissena Cycling Club. USA Cycling had no involvement in the positioning of the plaintiff, who was a recreational cyclist, and the riders in the race. The fact that USA Cycling sanctioned the race, provided safety guidelines on its website and assisted the local race organizers in obtaining insurance does not result in a finding that they are liable for an incident that occurred in a local race that is fully operated and managed by a local racing club.

So Now What?

Spectators are necessary to any event. They “pay” for the event by either just being there so advertisers can sell to them or paying to enter the facility. Although the facts in this case are slightly different, other cyclists riding, the issues are still the same. Spectators are not a group of people that the event sponsors, owners; officials can create protection from litigation.

If a spectator gets hurt, there is little available to stop their claims.

Here the news was that USA Cycling had so little involvement in the race, they were able to successfully argue they owed no duty to the plaintiff. This argument is similar in all states; however, the definition of duty in each state and the type of involvement could make this difficult in some jurisdictions.

What do you think? Leave a comment.

Copyright 2018 Recreation Law (720) 334 8529

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By Recreation Law    James H. Moss

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Cycling, sanctioned, organizer, summary judgment, deposition, duty to plaintiff, participants, recreation, supervise, injuries, signs,


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