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States that allow a parent to sign away a minor’s right to sue

If your state is not listed here, you should assume a parent cannot waive a minor’s right to sue in your state.

State

By Statute Restrictions
Alaska Alaska: Sec. 09.65.292 Sec. 05.45.120 does not allow using a release by ski areas for ski injuries
Arizona ARS § 12-553 Limited to Equine Activities
Colorado C.R.S. §§13-22-107
Florida Florida Statute § 744.301 (3) Florida statute that allows a parent to release a minor’s right to sue
Virginia Chapter 62.  Equine Activity Liability § 3.2-6202.  Liability limited; liability actions prohibited Allows a parent to sign a release for a minor for equine activities
Utah 78B-4-203.  Limitations on Liability for Equine and Livestock Activities Limited to Equine Activities
(b) providing a document or release for the participant, or the participant’s legal guardian if the participant is a minor, to sign.
 

By Case Law

California Hohe v. San Diego Unified Sch. Dist., 224 Cal.App.3d 1559, 274 Cal.Rptr. 647 (1990)
Florida Global Travel Marketing, Inc v. Shea, 2005 Fla. LEXIS 1454 Allows a release signed by a parent to require arbitration of the minor’s claims
Florida Gonzalez v. City of Coral Gables, 871 So.2d 1067, 29 Fla. L. Weekly D1147 Release can be used for volunteer activities and by government entities
Maryland BJ’s Wholesale Club, Inc. v. Rosen, 435 Md. 714; 80 A.3d 345; 2013 Md. LEXIS 897 Maryland top court allows a parent to sign away a minor’s right to sue. Release was not fantastic, but good enough.
Massachusetts Sharon v. City of Newton, 437 Mass. 99; 769 N.E.2d 738; 2002 Mass. LEXIS 384
Minnesota Moore vs. Minnesota Baseball Instructional School, 2009 Minn. App. Unpub. LEXIS 299
North Dakota McPhail v. Bismarck Park District, 2003 ND 4; 655 N.W.2d 411; 2003 N.D. LEXIS 3 North Dakota decision allows a parent to sign away a minor’s right to sue
Ohio Zivich v. Mentor Soccer Club, Inc., 696 N.E.2d 201, 82 Ohio St.3d 367 (1998) Ohio Appellate decision upholds the use of a release for a minor for a commercial activity
Wisconsin Osborn v. Cascade Mountain, Inc., 655 N.W.2d 546, 259 Wis. 2d 481, 2002 Wisc. App. LEXIS 1216, 2003 WI App 1 However the decision in Atkins v. Swimwest Family Fitness Center, 2005 WI 4; 2005 Wisc. LEXIS 2 may void all releases in the state
 

On the Edge, but not enough to really rely on

Decisions are by the Federal District Courts and only preliminary motions
North Carolina Kelly v. United States of America, 2011 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 89741 North Carolina may allow a parent to sign away a minor’s right to sue for injuries when the minor is engaged in non-profit activities sponsored by schools, volunteers, or community organizations
New York DiFrancesco v. Win-Sum Ski Corp., Holiday Valley, Inc., 2017 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 39695 New York Federal Magistrate in a Motion in Limine, hearing holds the New York Skier Safety Statute allows a parent to sign away a minor’s right to sue.

What do you think? Leave a comment.

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Rules support lawsuits. Education supports the program. You can’t watch kids 24 hours a day, you can’t anticipate all risks so don’t tell parents (make rules that say) you can.

Kids on a trip to Israel are bitten by sand fleas. Kids get a disease. Group promised to monitor and protect kids. Parents sued for bites to kids.

Educate the parents. Kids can probably get hurt even if you wrap them in bubble wrap. You will try hard, but you can’t promise you can keep you safe. If you make promises that say you will protect kids, the parents expect perfection. They can’t protect their kids, and they know it so why would you be stupid enough to say something like that!

Marketing makes Promises Risk Management has to Pay For.

You want the kids on the trip. You know they’ll have a great time, and they’ll learn things. But don’t go so far as to make a declaration you cannot back up 100%. You will be sued if any injury occurs to any kids.

On top of that, your release will be thrown out possible because you made a material misrepresentation affecting the contract. If the court finds this, then the parties are placed in a position as if the contract had not occurred – no release.

Fraudulent inducement is another way to throw out a release. You lied to me about the safety of my kids; you fraudulent induced me to sign the release. Therefore, the release should be thrown out.

Do Something

Educate the parents on the risks. Tell the parents these are not all the risks, just some of the risks.  

Don’t do something.

Don’t make statements you can’t possible back up!

See Jewish groups sued over sand fly bites during youth trip to Israel

What do you think? Leave a comment.

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Copyright 2015 Recreation Law (720) Edit Law

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By Recreation Law    Rec-law@recreation-law.com         James H. Moss

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States that allow a parent to sign away a minor’s right to sue

If your state is not listed here, you should assume a parent cannot waive a minor’s right to sue in your state.

State

By Statute

Restrictions

Alaska

Alaska: Sec. 09.65.292

Sec. 05.45.120 does not allow using a release by ski areas for ski injuries

Arizona

ARS § 12-553

Limited to Equine Activities

Colorado

C.R.S. §§13-22-107

 

Florida

Florida Statute § 744.301 (3)

Florida statute that allows a parent to release a minor’s right to sue

Virginia

Chapter 62.  Equine Activity Liability § 3.2-6202.  Liability limited; liability actions prohibited

Allows a parent to sign a release for a minor for equine activities

Utah

78B-4-203.  Limitations on Liability for Equine and Livestock Activities

Limited to Equine Activities
(b) providing a document or release for the participant, or the participant’s legal guardian if the participant is a minor, to sign.

 

By Case Law

 

California

Hohe v. San Diego Unified Sch. Dist., 224 Cal.App.3d 1559, 274 Cal.Rptr. 647 (1990)

 

Florida

Global Travel Marketing, Inc v. Shea, 2005 Fla. LEXIS 1454

Allows a release signed by a parent to require arbitration of the minor’s claims

Florida

Gonzalez v. City of Coral Gables, 871 So.2d 1067, 29 Fla. L. Weekly D1147

Release can be used for volunteer activities and by government entities

Massachusetts

Sharon v. City of Newton, 437 Mass. 99; 769 N.E.2d 738; 2002 Mass. LEXIS 384

 

Minnesota

Moore vs. Minnesota Baseball Instructional School, 2009 Minn. App. Unpub. LEXIS 299

 

North Dakota

McPhail v. Bismarck Park District, 2003 ND 4; 655 N.W.2d 411; 2003 N.D. LEXIS 3

 

Ohio

Zivich v. Mentor Soccer Club, Inc., 696 N.E.2d 201, 82 Ohio St.3d 367 (1998)

 

Wisconsin

Osborn v. Cascade Mountain, Inc., 655 N.W.2d 546, 259 Wis. 2d 481, 2002 Wisc. App. LEXIS 1216, 2003 WI App 1

However the decision in Atkins v. Swimwest Family Fitness Center, 2005 WI 4; 2005 Wisc. LEXIS 2 may void all releases in the state

Maryland

BJ’s Wholesale Club, Inc. v. Rosen, 435 Md. 714; 80 A.3d 345; 2013 Md. LEXIS 897

Maryland top court allows a parent to sign away a minor’s right to sue. Release was not fantastic, but good enough.

 

On the Edge, but not enough to really rely on

 

North Carolina

Kelly v. United States of America, 2011 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 89741
Kelly , v. United States of America, 2014 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 135289

Ruling is by the Federal District Court and only a preliminary motion
And final decision dismissing the case

What do you think? Leave a comment.

Copyright 2011 Recreation Law (720) Edit Law, Recreation.Law@Gmail.com

Twitter: RecreationLaw

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Article in the Atlantic says being overprotective of kids creates more problems. Kids need risk to learn and grow and deal with risk later in life.

Subtitle says it all! “A preoccupation with safety has stripped childhood of independence, risk taking, and discovery—without making it safer. A new kind of playground points to a better solution.”

You must read the article. I won’t try and paraphrase what a great job the author did.  Here are some quotes from the article: The Overprotected Kid

It’s hard to absorb how much childhood norms have shifted in just one generation. Actions that would have been considered paranoid in the ’70s—walking third-graders to school, forbidding your kid to play ball in the street, going down the slide with your child in your lap—are now routine.

One very thorough study of “children’s independent mobility,” conducted in urban, suburban, and rural neighborhoods in the U.K., shows that in 1971, 80 percent of third-graders walked to school alone. By 1990, that measure had dropped to 9 percent, and now it’s even lower.

Over the years, the official consumer-product handbook has gone through several revisions; it is now supplemented by a set of technical guidelines for manufacturers. More and more, the standards are set by engineers and technical experts and lawyers, with little meaningful input from “people who know anything about children’s play,” says William Weisz, a design consultant who has sat on several committees overseeing changes to the guidelines.

“Reasonable risks are essential for children’s healthy development,” says Joe Frost, an influential safety crusader.

Children, she concluded, have a sensory need to taste danger and excitement; this doesn’t mean that what they do has to actually be dangerous, only that they feel they are taking a great risk.

And all adults also!

We might accept a few more phobias in our children in exchange for fewer injuries. But the final irony is that our close attention to safety has not in fact made a tremendous difference in the number of accidents children have. According to the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, which monitors hospital visits, the frequency of emergency-room visits related to playground equipment, including home equipment, in 1980 was 156,000, or one visit per 1,452 Americans. In 2012, it was 271,475, or one per 1,156 Americans.

I love this quote.

“The advent of all these special surfaces for playgrounds has contributed very little, if anything at all, to the safety of children,” he told me. Ball has found some evidence that long-bone injuries, which are far more common than head injuries, are actually increasing.

Is it Risk Homeostasis or is it that kids don’t know or care about surfaces, they just need to have fun!

“There’s a fear” among parents, Roger Hart told me, “an exaggeration of the dangers, a loss of trust” that isn’t clearly explainable.

Wow, very interesting.

If a mother is afraid that her child might be abducted, her ironclad rule should not be Don’t talk to strangers. It should be Don’t talk to your father.

This is simply life. It probably at some point in time was said thousands of times a day. Now hearing it once is enough to be quoted in an article. The conversation is between two kids.

“You might fall in the creek,” said Christian.

“I know,” said Gideon.

For once there is an article about children playing that did not talk about the harm of computers. Why because children who have the opportunity to play don’t want to spend time on computers. Play is more fun. It is more fun to go out and explore than to shoot something on a screen!

Do Something

However what is described in the article just sounds like my life growing up. Getting skinned knees and bruises was called growing up. We learned first aid on ourselves. This worked, this burned and this made a mess and did not help.

Read the Article!

See The Overprotected Kid

What do you think? Leave a comment.

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By Recreation Law Rec-law@recreation-law.com    James H. Moss       #Authorrank

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Virginia Chapter 62. Equine Activity Liability

CODE OF VIRGINIA

TITLE 3.2. AGRICULTURE, ANIMAL CARE, AND FOOD

SUBTITLE V. DOMESTIC ANIMALS

CHAPTER 62. EQUINE ACTIVITY LIABILITY

GO TO CODE OF VIRGINIA ARCHIVE DIRECTORY

Va. Code Ann. § 3.2-6202 (2014)

§ 3.2-6202. Liability limited; liability actions prohibited

A. Except as provided in § 3.2-6203, an equine activity sponsor, an equine professional, or any other person, which shall include a corporation, partnership, or limited liability company, shall not be liable for an injury to or death of a participant resulting from the intrinsic dangers of equine activities and, except as provided in § 3.2-6203, no participant nor any participant’s parent, guardian, or representative shall have or make any claim against or recover from any equine activity sponsor, equine professional, or any other person for injury, loss, damage, or death of the participant resulting from any of the intrinsic dangers of equine activities.

B. Except as provided in § 3.2-6203, no participant or parent or guardian of a participant who has knowingly executed a waiver of his rights to sue or agrees to assume all risks specifically enumerated under this subsection may maintain an action against or recover from an equine activity sponsor or an equine professional for an injury to or the death of a participant engaged in an equine activity. The waiver shall give notice to the participant of the intrinsic dangers of equine activities. The waiver shall remain valid unless expressly revoked in writing by the participant or parent or guardian of a minor.

HISTORY: 1991, c. 358, § 3.1-796.132; 2003, c. 876; 2008, c. 860.

NOTES: LAW REVIEW. –For article, “Virginia’s Rule of Non-waiver of Liability for Negligent Acts: Hiett v. Lake Barcroft Community Association, Inc.,” see 2 Geo. Mason L. Rev. 27 (1994).

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States that allow a parent to sign away a minor’s right to sue

If your state is not listed here, you should assume a parent cannot waive a minor’s right to sue in your state.

State

By Statute

Restrictions

Alaska

Alaska: Sec. 09.65.292

Sec. 05.45.120 does not allow using a release by ski areas for ski injuries

Arizona

ARS § 12-553

Limited to Equine Activities

Colorado

C.R.S. §§13-22-107

 

Florida

Florida Statute § 744.301 (3)

 

Virginia

Chapter 62.  Equine Activity Liability § 3.2-6202.  Liability limited; liability actions prohibited

Allows a parent to sign a release for a minor for equine activities

 

By Case Law

 

California

Hohe v. San Diego Unified Sch. Dist., 224 Cal.App.3d 1559, 274 Cal.Rptr. 647 (1990)

 

Florida

Global Travel Marketing, Inc v. Shea, 2005 Fla. LEXIS 1454

Allows a release signed by a parent to require arbitration of the minor’s claims

Florida

Gonzalez v. City of Coral Gables, 871 So.2d 1067, 29 Fla. L. Weekly D1147

Release can be used for volunteer activities and by government entities

Massachusetts

Sharon v. City of Newton, 437 Mass. 99; 769 N.E.2d 738; 2002 Mass. LEXIS 384

 

Minnesota

Moore vs. Minnesota Baseball Instructional School, 2009 Minn. App. Unpub. LEXIS 299

 

North Dakota

McPhail v. Bismarck Park District, 2003 ND 4; 655 N.W.2d 411; 2003 N.D. LEXIS 3

 

Ohio

Zivich v. Mentor Soccer Club, Inc., 696 N.E.2d 201, 82 Ohio St.3d 367 (1998)

 

Wisconsin

Osborn v. Cascade Mountain, Inc., 655 N.W.2d 546, 259 Wis. 2d 481, 2002 Wisc. App. LEXIS 1216, 2003 WI App 1

However the decision in Atkins v. Swimwest Family Fitness Center, 2005 WI 4; 2005 Wisc. LEXIS 2 may void all releases in the state

 

On the Edge, but not enough to really rely on

 

North Carolina

Kelly v. United States of America, 2011 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 89741

Ruling is by the Federal District Court and only a preliminary motion

What do you think? Leave a comment.

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Twitter: RecreationLaw

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First of a kind! A release written so badly the assumption of risk language stopped the release from working for one defendant and did not cover the minors because the release did not name them.

How many times do I have to repeat this, hire an attorney to write your release? Hire an attorney that understands your activity and your guests. These releases (yes two of them) are truly ridiculous. The release attempted to cover skiing, snowboarding, “sliding,” (whatever that is) and the tubing hill. On top of that the skier responsibility code or “your responsibility code” was included in the release for tubing. Two different releases were signed for the same activity. Finally the language in the release was just plain wrong and the court pointed it out.

Sauter v. Perfect North Slopes, et. al., 2014 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 468

Plaintiff: James Stephen Sauter and Piper Sauter, Individually and as the Natural Guardians of M.S., a minor

Defendant:  Perfect North Slopes, Inc., Andrew Broaddus, Stephanie Daniel, Christopher Daniel, Jenny Warr, and Anthony Warr,

Plaintiff Claims: negligence

Defendant Defenses: release, assumption of risk, no duty owed

Holding: For the defendant snowtubers who hit the plaintiff’s and for the plaintiff’s against the ski area because the release failed.

 

The case is about facts that probably occur every day on a tubing hill. One group of three tubers, plaintiffs, veered into another lane in the run out. As the second group of tubers, defendant tubers, came down they hit the plaintiffs. The parents of the injured tubers filed suit against the ski area owner of the tubing hill Perfect North Slope, and the defendant tubers that hit the kids.

As luck would have it or actually extremely poor management of the legal issues and documents of the defendants; plaintiff’s signed one release to go tubing, and the defendant tubers signed a different release. The director of Snowsport’s Operations stated:

…testified that Perfect North Slopes was transitioning from the Skiing/Snowboarding/Tubing Waiver to the Snow Tubing Release of Liability for snow tubers and that it was by chance that the Snow Tube Defendants and Sauters signed different release forms.

Both groups of defendants filed motions for summary judgment leading to this decision.

Summary of the case

The court first looked at the claims against the defendant tubers. The plaintiff’s brought the defendant tubers into the case arguing the tubers assumed a duty of care to the plaintiff’s by signing the release. The plaintiff’s quote language in the release and specifically in the “Your Responsibility Code” in the release which they argued created liability on the part of the defendant tubers.

The Sauters contend that the duty was assumed upon signing the Skiing/Snowboarding/Tubing Waiver. Specifically, the Sauters rely on the waiver’s clauses that signors agree to “[a]lways stay in control, and be able to stop or avoid other people or objects,” and “[tube] safely and in control.”

Your responsibility control was based on skiers and boarders on ski slopes. It is based on the simple premise that skier and boarders can turn and stop, that you can ski and board under control. In tubing, the only control, you have is to hold on or not. “Your Responsibility Code” has no bearing on tubing and in this case gave the plaintiffs away to drag in other guests of the ski area.

Under Indiana law a contract that creates a duty can create negligence. That means you sign an agreement that says you will act or not act in a certain way. You breach that duty which causes injury to the other party to the contract, under Indiana law you could be liable. The contract created the standard of care you breached.

Generally, only the parties to the contract can create the duty which can create liability. Third parties, those not identified in the contract or signors to the contract are not part or have benefits or duties from the contract. It is difficult to bring third parties into a contract unless the contract is made to benefit the third party or contemplates the third party in the contract.

Here the court agreed with the defendant tubers that the contract they signed with the defendant ski area did not create a duty of care owed to the plaintiffs. However, that conclusion was based on a very thorough and intense review of the “release” the defendant tuber’s signed. There were several sentences in the agreement that caused the court’s concern.

The signor of the agreement which contained the skier responsibility code agreed to abide by the code. The release also stated, “…as a skier/snowboarder/slider, I have responsibilities to myself and others to ski/ride/tube safely and in control.” The plaintiff argued that those statements created an affirmative duty of care on the part of one group of tubers to another.

The ski area testified that the skier responsibility code had nothing to do with tubing. In fact, much of the deposition testimony incorporated into the decision concerning the intent of the ski area with the release was about the defendant tubers. The judge concluded: “It is illogical that Perfect North Slopes would intend for some snow tubers to affirmatively assume a duty of care to other patrons, while other snow tubers did not.” The third party defendants were dismissed from the case.

Defendant Ski Areas arguments

The same confusion that led to the release from the suit of the defendant tubers worked against the ski area. There is an axiom in the law that states a contract will be construed against the person who drafted it. This means if there is a section of the contract that could be interpreted either for or against the drafter; it will be interpreted against the drafter. This applies to all releases because releases are presented to the guests on a take it or leave it basis. As the drafter, the court figures they had the best chance to write the release correctly and thus wrote the release to help the other party if the release is confusing.

Badly written releases are legally termed ambiguous. Here the court held the release was ambiguous.

“Construction of the terms of a written contract is a pure question of law for the court, reviewed de novo.” If an instrument’s language is unambiguous, the parties’ intent is determined from the four corners of the instrument. If a contract is ambiguous or uncertain, its meaning is determined by extrinsic evidence, and its construction is a matter for the fact-finder. An ambiguity exists where a provision is susceptible to more than one interpretation, and reasonable persons would differ as to its meaning.

A patent ambiguity is apparent on the face of the instrument and arises from an inconsistency or inherent uncertainty of language used so that it either conveys no definite meaning or a confused meaning. Extrinsic evidence is not admissible to explain or remove a patent ambiguity. Conversely, a latent ambiguity does not emerge until one attempts to implement the words as directed in the instrument. Extrinsic evidence is admissible to explain a latent ambiguity.

Ambiguous contracts or releases cannot be upheld.

In reading the release signed by the plaintiff the court looked at whether it was intended to apply to the minor children. The first part of the release was written to prevent suits by the “signor.” In this case, the signor was the parents of the injured minors.

Only in the second part of the release, the medical authorization was there a mention to other parties, children or minors.

Each paragraph and sentence references that the signor understands, accepts, or agrees to the release’s terms. However, in the fourth paragraph, the release changes structure and states, “I authorize Perfect North Slopes Ski Patrol to administer treatment in the event of an injury to myself or to the minor for whom I am signing.”

Reading the contract as a whole, the court found the only part of the release that applied to the children was the medical authorization. The release part of the release only applied to the person who signed it.

The ski area was not released from the lawsuit.

So Now What?

When you have a new release, you shred, recycle, and throw out the old release. You don’t keep them around to save money or paper. The amount of paper you save is just a small percentage of what the parties will go through in a trial.

Make sure that your release does not create duties of care or promises that create liability for you or for third parties. You cannot disclaim liability for future injuries and promise not to injure a guest in the same document.

Don’t put anything in your release that could confuse or compromise the release. Here the skier responsibility code had no application to tubing and could have created liability for third parties. Why waste the space to complicate your document.

Never write, or use, a release that is confusing. Here the interpretation of several confusing sections led to the decision that could have gone either direction to some extent. Your release must be clear and distinctly understandable showing that the parties intend the document will prevent future litigation for any injuries.

The court never considered if the release covered minors. Here was a perfect opportunity for the court to hold that releases stopped suits by minors. However, the release was written so badly the court never even got to that issue.

How hard is it to include a simple phrase into a release so that other tubers are not drawn into a lawsuit? Do you think the defendant tubers are going to go tubing for a while, or for that matter, any other sport with other people they do not know? Instead of marketing and keeping people safe, the release at issue here probably helped keep people from the sport.

This contract was written to cover everything and effectively covered nothing. It just does not work to write releases to cover the world if your operation is that big. Your release must be written for the law of the state where you are operating or based and must be written to cover the activities your client’s are engaged in. Here the release was written to cover everything, written badly and ended up covering nothing.

The release in this case was a disaster. The new release was equally bad. Both were written badly and included language that made them ineffective at best and increased liability to a greater extent. It is difficult to write a release where the language voids it because you describe the risks improperly, however, this release did.

Other Tubing Cases

Tubing brings in a lot of money for a small space, and a well-written release keeps the money flowing            http://rec-law.us/So8QS8

Bad release and prepped plaintiff defeat motion for summary judgment filed by ski areahttp://rec-law.us/12mE4O1

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By Recreation Law       Rec-law@recreation-law.com              James H. Moss               #Authorrank

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