The risk of hiking over lava fields is an obvious risk; falling while hiking is also a possibility….so is suing when you do both…but you won’t win

Plaintiff signed up on a cruise ship to hike on a lava field. She was fully informed of the risks and admitted to knowing the risks in advance which is defined as assumption of the risk.

Andia, M.D., v. Full Service Travel, 2007 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 88247

State: California and Hawaii, the accident occurred in Hawaii but the lawsuit was filed in California

Plaintiff: Ana Maria Andia, M.D.

Defendant: Full Service Travel, a California corporation, Celebrity Cruises, Inc., a foreign corporation, and Arnott’s Lodge and Hike Adventures

Plaintiff Claims: (1) negligence, on grounds that Defendant breached its duty of care to Plaintiff by failing to ensure the safety of participants in their excursions, and (2) negligence, on grounds that Defendant failed to warn Plaintiff of the known dangers and risks associated with the lava hike. & (1) negligence, on grounds that defendant cruise breached its duty of care to Plaintiff by failing to offer reasonably reliable and safe excursions, and (2) negligence, on grounds that defendant cruise failed to warn Plaintiff of the dangers and risks associated with the lava hike.

Defendant Defenses: assumption of the risk

Holding: for the defendant

Year: 2007

Simple case, however, the facts are long because the defendants provided the plaintiff with a ton of information about the risks of the activity which the court reviewed.

The plaintiff signed up for a hike in the lava fields in Hawaii while on a cruise ship. The information about the hike stated the distance of the hike was always changing because of the lava flow. The hikers could return at any time; however, if they did they would return the way they came by themselves.

This information was provided to the plaintiff in a description of the hike provided by the defendant cruise line, in a brochure that plaintiff was given, in a release the plaintiff signed, and during a talk before the hike began.

Plaintiff in her deposition also admitted that she was an experienced hiker, that falling was always a possibility when hiking.

During a point in the hike, the plaintiff decided to turn around. While hiking back to the ranger station she fell breaking her foot. She sued for her injuries.

The lawsuit was started in the Federal District Court of Southern California. The defendant travel company was dismissed earlier in the case. The defendant hiking company cruise line filed motions for summit judgment.

Summary of the case

The court first looked at the claims against the defendant hiking business. (The type of entity or whether it was an entity was never identified, and the court was not sure what the hiking company was also.)

The basis of the motion from the hiking company was that the risk of “…slipping, falling and injuring oneself on uneven, natural terrain is an inherent risk of lava hiking.”

The duty of care owed by the defendant hiking company in this situation is:

…a duty to use due care and avoid injury to others, and may be held liable if they’re careless conduct injures another person. The doctrine of primary assumption of the risk is an exception to this general rule. The doctrine arises where “by virtue of the nature of the activity and the parties’ relationship to the activity; the defendant owes no legal duty to protect the plaintiff from the particular risk of harm that caused the injury.”

The court then found the doctrine of primary assumption of the risk applied because:

…conditions or conduct that otherwise might be viewed as dangerous often are an integral part” of the activity itself. “The overriding consideration in the application of primary assumption of risk is to avoid imposing a duty which might chill vigorous participation in the implicated activity and thereby alter its fundamental nature.”

Summing up its own analyses of primary assumption of risk the court stated:

If the doctrine of primary assumption of risk applies, a defendant is only liable for a plaintiff’s injuries if the defendant “engages in conduct so reckless as to be totally outside the range of the ordinary activity involved in the sport or activity” or increases the inherent risk involved in the activity.

The plaintiff argued that the hiking company, Arnott’s, was guilty of gross negligence because:

Arnott’s did nothing to provide for Plaintiff’s safety on the lava hike once she determined she could not go forward; Arnott’s did nothing to warn plaintiff of the dangers of approaching too closely to the coastline; Arnott’s did not ensure plaintiff had sufficient water for her trip back to the Rangers station; Arnott’s was understaffed; Arnott’s failed to follow protocol by pressuring plaintiff to return to the ship rather than obtain treatment at the Hilo emergency room; Arnott’s offered misleading information about the trail markings; Arnott’s provided plaintiff with falsely reassuring directions back to the Rangers station; and Arnott’s permitted Plaintiff to hike in sneakers instead of boots. Plaintiff contends that this conduct constituted gross negligence, making the Agreement, which purports to exculpate Arnott’s of liability, unenforceable. Plaintiff also contends that the Agreement is an unconscionable and unenforceable contract of adhesion because it is a pre-printed form, contained multiple signatures and there was no alternative for Plaintiff but to sign it or wait at the Rangers station while the others hiked, losing a day of her cruise vacation.

However, the plaintiff’s arguments were not backed up with any facts. Arguing a point with facts that do not support your argument fails.  

The Court concludes that the doctrine of primary assumption of risk applies, negating Arnott’s general duty to prevent plaintiff from slipping and falling on lava rock, an inherent risk of the activity of lava hiking.

Nor did the actions of the defendant hiking company increase the risk of injury to the plaintiff.

The plaintiff knew the risks of hiking prior to the hike in question and admitted that in her deposition. The plaintiff was given information about the hike and had the risks of the hike explained to her four different ways prior to the hike. The plaintiff assumed the risk of here injuries, and the risk that plaintiff suffered causing her injury were visible to anyone hiking in the lava field.

The next issue the court reviewed with regard to the defendant hiking company was the duty to warn. “It is established law, at least in the exercise of ordinary care, that one is under no duty to warn an-other of a danger equally obvious to both.”

The court found for the hiking company on this issue based on the facts and found the plaintiff assumed the risk of her injuries because she could see the risk and continued on anyway. If you can see the risk, you cannot complain about not knowing about the risk.

The plaintiff’s claims against the cruise ship were then reviewed. A cruise ship has a different duty of care owed to its passengers. “The duty of care of the owner of an excursion ship is a matter of federal maritime law. That duty is to exercise reasonable care under the circumstances.”

Here the plaintiff presented no evidence that the defendant cruise line did not exercise reasonable care to the plaintiff. The same facts when applied to the case also showed the defendant cruise ship had not breached its duty to warn to the plaintiff. The information and brochure were provided by the cruise ship to the plaintiff when she signed up for the hike.

[I]t is generally accepted that where a carrier.  . . has a continuing obligation for the care of its passengers, its duty is to warn of dangers known to the carrier in places where the passenger is invited to, or may reasonably be expected to visit.” However, “there is no duty to warn of a danger that is as obvious to the injured party as to the defendant.”

So Now What?

The case was won on two issues. The first was the risks of the activity were pointed out over and over again by the hiking company to the plaintiff. Information, brochures, safety talks all stated the risks of the activity which the plaintiff accepted when she turned around.

The second issue was the plaintiff in her deposition admitted to hiking experience. Possibly one or the other could have been enough to prove a defense for the defendants in this case; however, since both were so clear, the defense was easily proven.

Many times on hikes, we point out risk, as well as birds and beauty, to others with us. If you are guiding a hike, this requirement should concentrate your attention to these issues and your actions in pointing out risks. You can cover many of the risks of an activity such as hiking with a general talk at the beginning. “We are going to be walking on uneven surfaces. There will be many rocks and roots to trip on. Pay attention to where you are putting your feet and make sure you are on a solid surface when walking.”

As much as releases are an important defense and source of information for your guests, assumption of the risk is making a comeback in the outdoor recreation industry. If your release fails for any reason, assumption of the risk is the best and maybe the only other defense you have available.

Besides the more your gusts know and understand the risks of the activity the less likely the will be to be injured and the better the experience they will have. Leave scaring guests to fun houses at Halloween.

The one confusing issue in the case was the courts use of California law to decide a case that occurred in Hawaii. The federal courts are for situations like this when the parties are from different states. The plaintiff was from California, and the defendants were from Hawaii. However, without an agreement as to the law that should be applied to the case, Hawaiian law, I believe should be applied. Here the court used California law.

What do you think? Leave a comment.

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By Recreation Law       Rec-law@recreation-law.com              James H. Moss               #Authorrank

#AdventureTourism, #AdventureTravelLaw, #AdventureTravelLawyer, #AttorneyatLaw, #Backpacking, #BicyclingLaw, #Camps, #ChallengeCourse, #ChallengeCourseLaw, #ChallengeCourseLawyer, #CyclingLaw, #FitnessLaw, #FitnessLawyer, #Hiking, #HumanPowered, #HumanPoweredRecreation, #IceClimbing, #JamesHMoss, #JimMoss, #Law, #Mountaineering, #Negligence, #OutdoorLaw, #OutdoorRecreationLaw, #OutsideLaw, #OutsideLawyer, #RecLaw, #Rec-Law, #RecLawBlog, #Rec-LawBlog, #RecLawyer, #RecreationalLawyer, #RecreationLaw, #RecreationLawBlog, #RecreationLawcom, #Recreation-Lawcom, #Recreation-Law.com, #RiskManagement, #RockClimbing, #RockClimbingLawyer, #RopesCourse, #RopesCourseLawyer, #SkiAreas, #Skiing, #SkiLaw, #Snowboarding, #SummerCamp, #Tourism, #TravelLaw, #YouthCamps, #ZipLineLawyer, Ana Maria Andia, M.D., Full Service Travel, Celebrity Cruises, Inc., Arnott’s Lodge and Hike Adventures, Volcano, Lava, Lava Field, Hiking, Cruise, Cruise Ship, Excursion, Assumption of the Risk, Primary Assumption of the Risk,

 

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New Ohio law allows Camps and Schools to obtain Epinephrine in their name for kids

Smart law might save a few kids and not create criminals of the adults to care for them.

The entire law is attached below, but in short, schools as defined in the act and camps can now go to pharmacies and obtain epinephrine for their kids. There must be a plan in place on how to store and use the epinephrine and the persons administering the epinephrine must be educated in its use.

Summer Camps and Day Camps as defined by state law can also obtain epinephrine for their kids. The law provides immunity from lawsuits for camps and people who use the autoinjectors under the law.

The law is a good step forward. Every other state should adopt a similar law.

Again thanks to Danny Twilley for bringing this to my attention.

The act can be seen here: http://www.legislature.state.oh.us/bills.cfm?ID=130_HB_296

Here is the new law. I’ve highlighted sections that are important.

AN ACT

To amend sections 3313.713, 3313.718, 4729.51, and 4729.60 and to enact sections 3313.7110, 3313.7111, 3314.143, 3326.28, 3328.29, and 5101.76 of the Revised Code to permit schools and camps to procure and use epinephrine autoinjectors in accordance with prescribed policies, to exempt them from licensing requirements related to the possession of epinephrine autoinjectors, and to declare an emergency.

Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Ohio:

SECTION 1. That sections 3313.713, 3313.718, 4729.51, and 4729.60 be amended and sections 3313.7110, 3313.7111, 3314.143, 3326.28, 3328.29, and 5101.76 of the Revised Code be enacted to read as follows:

Sec. 3313.713. (A) As used in this section:

(1) “Drug” means a drug, as defined in section 4729.01 of the Revised Code, that is to be administered pursuant to the instructions of the prescriber, whether or not required by law to be sold only upon a prescription.

(2) “Federal law” means the “Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997,” 111 Stat. 37, 20 U.S.C. 1400, as amended.

(3) “Prescriber” has the same meaning as in section 4729.01 of the Revised Code.

(B) The board of education of each city, local, exempted village, and joint vocational school district shall, not later than one hundred twenty days after September 20, 1984, adopt a policy on the authority of its employees, when acting in situations other than those governed by sections 2305.23, 2305.231, and 3313.712, and 3313.7110 of the Revised Code, to administer drugs prescribed to students enrolled in the schools of the district. The policy shall provide either that:

(1) Except as otherwise required by federal law, no person employed by the board shall, in the course of such employment, administer any drug prescribed to any student enrolled in the schools of the district.

(2) Designated persons employed by the board are authorized to administer to a student a drug prescribed for the student. Effective July 1, 2011, only employees of the board who are licensed health professionals, or who have completed a drug administration training program conducted by a licensed health professional and considered appropriate by the board, may administer to a student a drug prescribed for the student. Except as otherwise provided by federal law, the board’s policy may provide that certain drugs or types of drugs shall not be administered or that no employee shall use certain procedures, such as injection, to administer a drug to a student.

(C) No drug prescribed for a student shall be administered pursuant to federal law or a policy adopted under division (B) of this section until the following occur:

(1) The board, or a person designated by the board, receives a written request, signed by the parent, guardian, or other person having care or charge of the student, that the drug be administered to the student.

(2) The board, or a person designated by the board, receives a statement, signed by the prescriber, that includes all of the following information:

(a) The name and address of the student;

(b) The school and class in which the student is enrolled;

(c) The name of the drug and the dosage to be administered;

(d) The times or intervals at which each dosage of the drug is to be administered;

(e) The date the administration of the drug is to begin;

(f) The date the administration of the drug is to cease;

(g) Any severe adverse reactions that should be reported to the prescriber and one or more phone numbers at which the prescriber can be reached in an emergency;

(h) Special instructions for administration of the drug, including sterile conditions and storage.

(3) The parent, guardian, or other person having care or charge of the student agrees to submit a revised statement signed by the prescriber to the board or a person designated by the board if any of the information provided by the prescriber pursuant to division (C)(2) of this section changes.

(4) The person authorized by the board to administer the drug receives a copy of the statement required by division (C)(2) or (3) of this section.

(5) The drug is received by the person authorized to administer the drug to the student for whom the drug is prescribed in the container in which it was dispensed by the prescriber or a licensed pharmacist.

(6) Any other procedures required by the board are followed.

(D) If a drug is administered to a student, the board of education shall acquire and retain copies of the written requests required by division (C)(1) and the statements required by divisions (C)(2) and (3) of this section and shall ensure that by the next school day following the receipt of any such statement a copy is given to the person authorized to administer drugs to the student for whom the statement has been received. The board, or a person designated by the board, shall establish a location in each school building for the storage of drugs to be administered under this section and federal law. All such drugs shall be stored in that location in a locked storage place, except that drugs that require refrigeration may be kept in a refrigerator in a place not commonly used by students.

(E) No person who has been authorized by a board of education to administer a drug and has a copy of the most recent statement required by division (C)(2) or (3) of this section given to the person in accordance with division (D) of this section prior to administering the drug is liable in civil damages for administering or failing to administer the drug, unless such person acts in a manner that constitutes gross negligence or wanton or reckless misconduct.

(F) A board of education may designate a person or persons to perform any function or functions in connection with a drug policy adopted under this section either by name or by position, training, qualifications, or similar distinguishing factors.

(G) A policy adopted by a board of education pursuant to this section may be changed, modified, or revised by action of the board.

(H) Nothing in this section shall be construed to require a person employed by a board of education to administer a drug to a student unless the board’s policy adopted in compliance with this section establishes such a requirement. A board shall not require an employee to administer a drug to a student if the employee objects, on the basis of religious convictions, to administering the drug.

Nothing in this section affects the application of section 2305.23, 2305.231, or 3313.712, or 3313.7110 of the Revised Code to the administration of emergency care or treatment to a student.

Nothing in this section affects the ability of a public or nonpublic school to participate in a school-based fluoride mouth rinse program established by the director of health pursuant to section 3701.136 of the Revised Code. Nothing in this section affects the ability of a person who is employed by, or who volunteers for, a school that participates in such a program to administer fluoride mouth rinse to a student in accordance with section 3701.136 of the Revised Code and any rules adopted by the director under that section.

Sec. 3313.718. (A) As used in this section, “prescriber” has the same meaning as in section 4729.01 of the Revised Code.

(B) Notwithstanding section 3313.713 of the Revised Code or any policy adopted under that section, a student of a school operated by a city, local, exempted village, or joint vocational school district or a student of a chartered nonpublic school may possess and use an epinephrine autoinjector to treat anaphylaxis, if all of the following conditions are satisfied:

(1) The student has the written approval of the prescriber of the autoinjector and, if the student is a minor, the written approval of the parent, guardian, or other person having care or charge of the student. The prescriber’s written approval shall include at least all of the following information:

(a) The student’s name and address;

(b) The names and dose of the medication contained in the autoinjector;

(c) The date the administration of the medication is to begin;

(d) The date, if known, that the administration of the medication is to cease;

(e) Acknowledgment that the prescriber has determined that the student is capable of possessing and using the autoinjector appropriately and has provided the student with training in the proper use of the autoinjector;

(f) Circumstances in which the autoinjector should be used;

(g) Written instructions that outline procedures school employees should follow in the event that the student is unable to administer the anaphylaxis medication or the medication does not produce the expected relief from the student’s anaphylaxis;

(h) Any severe adverse reactions that may occur to the child using the autoinjector that should be reported to the prescriber;

(i) Any severe adverse reactions that may occur to another child, for whom the autoinjector is not prescribed, should such a child receive a dose of the medication;

(j) At least one emergency telephone number for contacting the prescriber in an emergency;

(k) At least one emergency telephone number for contacting the parent, guardian, or other person having care or charge of the student in an emergency;

(l) Any other special instructions from the prescriber.

(2) The school principal and, if a school nurse is assigned to the student’s school building, the school nurse has received copies of the written approvals required by division (B)(1) of this section.

(3) The school principal or, if a school nurse is assigned to the student’s school building, the school nurse has received a backup dose of the anaphylaxis medication from the parent, guardian, or other person having care or charge of the student or, if the student is not a minor, from the student.

If these conditions are satisfied, the student may possess and use the autoinjector at school or at any activity, event, or program sponsored by or in which the student’s school is a participant.

(C) Whenever a student uses an autoinjector at school or at any activity, event, or program sponsored by or in which the student’s school is a participant or whenever a school employee administers anaphylaxis medication to a student at such times that was possessed by the student pursuant to the written approvals described in division (B)(1) of this section, a school employee shall immediately request assistance from an emergency medical service provider.

(D)(1) A school district, member of a school district board of education, or school district employee is not liable in damages in a civil action for injury, death, or loss to person or property allegedly arising from a district employee’s prohibiting a student from using an autoinjector because of the employee’s good faith belief that the conditions of division (B) of this section had not been satisfied. A school district, member of a school district board of education, or school district employee is not liable in damages in a civil action for injury, death, or loss to person or property allegedly arising from a district employee’s permitting a student to use an autoinjector because of the employee’s good faith belief that the conditions of division (B) of this section had been satisfied. Furthermore, when a school district is required by this section to permit a student to possess and use an autoinjector because the conditions of division (B) of this section have been satisfied, the school district, any member of the school district board of education, or any school district employee is not liable in damages in a civil action for injury, death, or loss to person or property allegedly arising from the use of the autoinjector by a student for whom it was not prescribed.

This section does not eliminate, limit, or reduce any other immunity or defense that a school district, member of a school district board of education, or school district employee may be entitled to under Chapter 2744. or any other provision of the Revised Code or under the common law of this state.

(2) A chartered nonpublic school or any officer, director, or employee of the school is not liable in damages in a civil action for injury, death, or loss to person or property allegedly arising from a school employee’s prohibiting a student from using an autoinjector because of the employee’s good faith belief that the conditions of division (B) of this section had not been satisfied. A chartered nonpublic school or any officer, director, or employee of the school is not liable in damages in a civil action for injury, death, or loss to person or property allegedly arising from a school employee’s permitting a student to use an autoinjector because of the employee’s good faith belief that the conditions of division (B) of this section had been satisfied. Furthermore, when a chartered nonpublic school is required by this section to permit a student to possess and use an autoinjector because the conditions of division (B) of this section have been satisfied, the chartered nonpublic school or any officer, director, or employee of the school is not liable in damages in a civil action for injury, death, or loss to person or property allegedly arising from the use of the autoinjector by a student for whom it was not prescribed.

Sec. 3313.7110. (A) The board of education of each city, local, exempted village, or joint vocational school district may procure epinephrine autoinjectors for each school operated by the district to have on the school premises for use in emergency situations identified under division (C)(5) of this section. A district board that elects to procure epinephrine autoinjectors under this section is encouraged to maintain, at all times, at least two epinephrine injectors at each school operated by the district.

(B) A district board that elects to procure epinephrine autoinjectors under this section shall require the district’s superintendent to adopt a policy governing their maintenance and use. Before adopting the policy, the superintendent shall consult with a licensed health professional authorized to prescribe drugs, as defined in section 4729.01 of the Revised Code.

(C) A component of a policy adopted by a superintendent under division (B) of this section shall be a prescriber-issued protocol specifying definitive orders for epinephrine autoinjectors and the dosages of epinephrine to be administered through them. The policy also shall do all of the following:

(1) Identify the one or more locations in each school operated by the district in which an epinephrine autoinjector must be stored;

(2) Specify the conditions under which an epinephrine autoinjector must be stored, replaced, and disposed;

(3) Specify the individuals employed by or under contract with the district board, in addition to a school nurse licensed under section 3319.221 of the Revised Code or an athletic trainer licensed under Chapter 4755. of the Revised Code, who may access and use an epinephrine autoinjector to provide a dosage of epinephrine to an individual in an emergency situation identified under division (C)(5) of this section;

(4) Specify any training that employees or contractors specified under division (C)(3) of this section, other than a school nurse or athletic trainer, must complete before being authorized to access and use an epinephrine autoinjector;

(5) Identify the emergency situations, including when an individual exhibits signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis, in which a school nurse, athletic trainer, or other employees or contractors specified under division (C)(3) of this section may access and use an epinephrine autoinjector;

(6) Specify that assistance from an emergency medical service provider must be requested immediately after an epinephrine autoinjector is used;

(7) Specify the individuals, in addition to students, school employees or contractors, and school visitors, to whom a dosage of epinephrine may be administered through an epinephrine autoinjector in an emergency situation specified under division (C)(5) of this section.

(D) A school or school district, a member of a district board of education, or a district or school employee or contractor is not liable in damages in a civil action for injury, death, or loss to person or property that allegedly arises from an act or omission associated with procuring, maintaining, accessing, or using an epinephrine autoinjector under this section, unless the act or omission constitutes willful or wanton misconduct.

This section does not eliminate, limit, or reduce any other immunity or defense that a school or school district, member of a district board of education, or district or school employee or contractor may be entitled to under Chapter 2744. or any other provision of the Revised Code or under the common law of this state.

(E) A school district board of education may accept donations of epinephrine autoinjectors from a wholesale distributor of dangerous drugs or a manufacturer of dangerous drugs, as defined in section 4729.01 of the Revised Code, and may accept donations of money from any person to purchase epinephrine autoinjectors.

(F) A district board that elects to procure epinephrine autoinjectors under this section shall report to the department of education each procurement and occurrence in which an epinephrine autoinjector is used from a school’s supply of epinephrine autoinjectors.

Sec. 3313.7111. (A) With the approval of its governing authority, a chartered or nonchartered nonpublic school may procure epinephrine autoinjectors in the manner prescribed by section 3313.7110 of the Revised Code. A chartered or nonchartered nonpublic school that elects to do so shall comply with all provisions of that section as if it were a school district.

(B) A chartered or nonchartered nonpublic school, a member of a chartered or nonchartered nonpublic school governing authority, or an employee or contractor of the school is not liable in damages in a civil action for injury, death, or loss to person or property that allegedly arises from an act or omission associated with procuring, maintaining, accessing, or using an epinephrine autoinjector under this section, unless the act or omission constitutes willful or wanton misconduct.

(C) A chartered or nonchartered nonpublic school may accept donations of epinephrine autoinjectors from a wholesale distributor of dangerous drugs or a manufacturer of dangerous drugs, as defined in section 4729.01 of the Revised Code, and may accept donations of money from any person to purchase epinephrine autoinjectors.

(D) A chartered or nonchartered nonpublic school that elects to procure epinephrine autoinjectors under this section shall report to the department of education each procurement and occurrence in which an epinephrine autoinjector is used from the school’s supply of epinephrine autoinjectors.

Sec. 3314.143. (A) With the approval of its governing authority, a community school established under this chapter may procure epinephrine autoinjectors in the manner prescribed by section 3313.7110 of the Revised Code. A community school that elects to do so shall comply with all provisions of that section as if it were a school district.

(B) A community school, a member of a community school governing authority, or a community school employee or contractor is not liable in damages in a civil action for injury, death, or loss to person or property that allegedly arises from an act or omission associated with procuring, maintaining, accessing, or using an epinephrine autoinjector under this section, unless the act or omission constitutes willful or wanton misconduct.

This division does not eliminate, limit, or reduce any other immunity or defense that a community school or governing authority, member of a community school governing authority, or community school employee or contractor may be entitled to under Chapter 2744. or any other provision of the Revised Code or under the common law of this state.

(C) A community school may accept donations of epinephrine autoinjectors from a wholesale distributor of dangerous drugs or a manufacturer of dangerous drugs, as defined in section 4729.01 of the Revised Code, and may accept donations of money from any person to purchase epinephrine autoinjectors.

(D) A community school that elects to procure epinephrine autoinjectors under this section shall report to the department of education each procurement and occurrence in which an epinephrine autoinjector is used from the school’s supply of epinephrine autoinjectors.

Sec. 3326.28. (A) With the approval of its governing body, a STEM school established under this chapter may procure epinephrine autoinjectors in the manner prescribed by section 3313.7110 of the Revised Code. A STEM school that elects to do so shall comply with all provisions of that section as if it were a school district.

(B) A STEM school, a member of a STEM school governing body, or a STEM school employee or contractor is not liable in damages in a civil action for injury, death, or loss to person or property that allegedly arises from an act or omission associated with procuring, maintaining, accessing, or using an epinephrine autoinjector under this section, unless the act or omission constitutes willful or wanton misconduct.

This division does not eliminate, limit, or reduce any other immunity or defense that a STEM school or governing body, member of a STEM school governing body, or STEM school employee or contractor may be entitled to under Chapter 2744. or any other provision of the Revised Code or under the common law of this state.

(C) A STEM school may accept donations of epinephrine autoinjectors from a wholesale distributor of dangerous drugs or a manufacturer of dangerous drugs, as defined in section 4729.01 of the Revised Code, and may accept donations of money from any person to purchase epinephrine autoinjectors.

(D) A STEM school that elects to procure epinephrine autoinjectors under this section shall report to the department of education each procurement and occurrence in which an epinephrine autoinjector is used from the school’s supply of epinephrine autoinjectors.

Sec. 3328.29. (A) With the approval of its board of trustees, a college-preparatory boarding school established under this chapter may procure epinephrine autoinjectors in the manner prescribed by section 3313.7110 of the Revised Code. A college-preparatory boarding school that elects to do so shall comply with all provisions of that section as if it were a school district.

(B) A college-preparatory boarding school, a member of a college-preparatory boarding school board of trustees, or a college-preparatory boarding school employee or contractor is not liable in damages in a civil action for injury, death, or loss to person or property that allegedly arises from an act or omission associated with procuring, maintaining, accessing, or using an epinephrine autoinjector under this section, unless the act or omission constitutes willful or wanton misconduct.

This division does not eliminate, limit, or reduce any other immunity or defense that a college-preparatory boarding school or board of trustees, member of a college-preparatory boarding school board of trustees, or college-preparatory boarding school employee or contractor may be entitled to under Chapter 2744. or any other provision of the Revised Code or under the common law of this state.

(C) A college-preparatory boarding school may accept donations of epinephrine autoinjectors from a wholesale distributor of dangerous drugs or a manufacturer of dangerous drugs, as defined in section 4729.01 of the Revised Code, and may accept donations of money from any person to purchase epinephrine autoinjectors.

(D) A college-preparatory boarding school that elects to procure epinephrine autoinjectors under this section shall report to the department of education each procurement and occurrence in which an epinephrine autoinjector is used from a school’s supply of epinephrine autoinjectors.

Sec. 4729.51. (A) No (1) Except as provided in division (A)(2) of this section, no person other than a registered wholesale distributor of dangerous drugs shall possess for sale, sell, distribute, or deliver, at wholesale, dangerous drugs, except as follows:

(1)(a) A pharmacist who is a licensed terminal distributor of dangerous drugs or who is employed by a licensed terminal distributor of dangerous drugs may make occasional sales of dangerous drugs at wholesale;

(2)(b) A licensed terminal distributor of dangerous drugs having more than one establishment or place may transfer or deliver dangerous drugs from one establishment or place for which a license has been issued to the terminal distributor to another establishment or place for which a license has been issued to the terminal distributor if the license issued for each establishment or place is in effect at the time of the transfer or delivery.

(2) A manufacturer of dangerous drugs may donate epinephrine autoinjectors to any of the following:

(a) The board of education of a city, local, exempted village, or joint vocational school district;

(b) A community school established under Chapter 3314. of the Revised Code;

(c) A STEM school established under Chapter 3326. of the Revised Code;

(d) A college-preparatory boarding school established under Chapter 3328. of the Revised Code;

(e) A chartered or nonchartered nonpublic school.

(B)(1) No registered wholesale distributor of dangerous drugs shall possess for sale, or sell, at wholesale, dangerous drugs to any person other than the following:

(a) Except as provided in division (B)(2)(a) of this section, a licensed health professional authorized to prescribe drugs;

(b) An optometrist licensed under Chapter 4725. of the Revised Code who holds a topical ocular pharmaceutical agents certificate;

(c) A registered wholesale distributor of dangerous drugs;

(d) A manufacturer of dangerous drugs;

(e) Subject to division (B)(3) of this section, a licensed terminal distributor of dangerous drugs;

(f) Carriers or warehouses for the purpose of carriage or storage;

(g) Terminal or wholesale distributors of dangerous drugs who are not engaged in the sale of dangerous drugs within this state;

(h) An individual who holds a current license, certificate, or registration issued under Title 47 XLVII of the Revised Code and has been certified to conduct diabetes education by a national certifying body specified in rules adopted by the state board of pharmacy under section 4729.68 of the Revised Code, but only with respect to insulin that will be used for the purpose of diabetes education and only if diabetes education is within the individual’s scope of practice under statutes and rules regulating the individual’s profession;

(i) An individual who holds a valid certificate issued by a nationally recognized S.C.U.B.A. diving certifying organization approved by the state board of pharmacy in rule, but only with respect to medical oxygen that will be used for the purpose of emergency care or treatment at the scene of a diving emergency;

(j) Except as provided in division (B)(2)(b) of this section, a business entity that is a corporation formed under division (B) of section 1701.03 of the Revised Code, a limited liability company formed under Chapter 1705. of the Revised Code, or a professional association formed under Chapter 1785. of the Revised Code if the entity has a sole shareholder who is a licensed health professional authorized to prescribe drugs and is authorized to provide the professional services being offered by the entity;

(k) Except as provided in division (B)(2)(c) of this section, a business entity that is a corporation formed under division (B) of section 1701.03 of the Revised Code, a limited liability company formed under Chapter 1705. of the Revised Code, a partnership or a limited liability partnership formed under Chapter 1775. of the Revised Code, or a professional association formed under Chapter 1785. of the Revised Code, if, to be a shareholder, member, or partner, an individual is required to be licensed, certified, or otherwise legally authorized under Title XLVII of the Revised Code to perform the professional service provided by the entity and each such individual is a licensed health professional authorized to prescribe drugs;

(l) With respect to epinephrine autoinjectors that may be possessed under section 3313.7110, 3313.7111, 3314.143, 3326.28, or 3328.29 of the Revised Code, any of the following: the board of education of a city, local, exempted village, or joint vocational school district; a chartered or nonchartered nonpublic school; a community school established under Chapter 3314. of the Revised Code; a STEM school established under Chapter 3326. of the Revised Code; or a college-preparatory boarding school established under Chapter 3328. of the Revised Code;

(m) With respect to epinephrine autoinjectors that may be possessed under section 5101.76 of the Revised Code, any of the following: a residential camp, as defined in section 2151.011 of the Revised Code; a child day camp, as defined in section 5104.01 of the Revised Code; or a child day camp operated by any county, township, municipal corporation, township park district created under section 511.18 of the Revised Code, park district created under section 1545.04 of the Revised Code, or joint recreation district established under section 755.14 of the Revised Code.

(2) No registered wholesale distributor of dangerous drugs shall possess for sale, or sell, at wholesale, dangerous drugs to any of the following:

(a) A prescriber who is employed by a pain management clinic that is not licensed as a terminal distributor of dangerous drugs with a pain management clinic classification issued under section 4729.552 of the Revised Code;

(b) A business entity described in division (B)(1)(j) of this section that is, or is operating, a pain management clinic without a license as a terminal distributor of dangerous drugs with a pain management clinic classification issued under section 4729.552 of the Revised Code;

(c) A business entity described in division (B)(1)(k) of this section that is, or is operating, a pain management clinic without a license as a terminal distributor of dangerous drugs with a pain management clinic classification issued under section 4729.552 of the Revised Code.

(3) No registered wholesale distributor of dangerous drugs shall possess dangerous drugs for sale at wholesale, or sell such drugs at wholesale, to a licensed terminal distributor of dangerous drugs, except as follows:

(a) In the case of a terminal distributor with a category I license, only dangerous drugs described in category I, as defined in division (A)(1) of section 4729.54 of the Revised Code;

(b) In the case of a terminal distributor with a category II license, only dangerous drugs described in category I and category II, as defined in divisions (A)(1) and (2) of section 4729.54 of the Revised Code;

(c) In the case of a terminal distributor with a category III license, dangerous drugs described in category I, category II, and category III, as defined in divisions (A)(1), (2), and (3) of section 4729.54 of the Revised Code;

(d) In the case of a terminal distributor with a limited category I, II, or III license, only the dangerous drugs specified in the certificate furnished by the terminal distributor in accordance with section 4729.60 of the Revised Code.

(C)(1) Except as provided in division (C)(4) of this section, no person shall sell, at retail, dangerous drugs.

(2) Except as provided in division (C)(4) of this section, no person shall possess for sale, at retail, dangerous drugs.

(3) Except as provided in division (C)(4) of this section, no person shall possess dangerous drugs.

(4) Divisions (C)(1), (2), and (3) of this section do not apply to a registered wholesale distributor of dangerous drugs, a licensed terminal distributor of dangerous drugs, or a person who possesses, or possesses for sale or sells, at retail, a dangerous drug in accordance with Chapters 3719., 4715., 4723., 4725., 4729., 4730., 4731., and 4741. of the Revised Code.

Divisions (C)(1), (2), and (3) of this section do not apply to an individual who holds a current license, certificate, or registration issued under Title XLVII of the Revised Code and has been certified to conduct diabetes education by a national certifying body specified in rules adopted by the state board of pharmacy under section 4729.68 of the Revised Code, but only to the extent that the individual possesses insulin or personally supplies insulin solely for the purpose of diabetes education and only if diabetes education is within the individual’s scope of practice under statutes and rules regulating the individual’s profession.

Divisions (C)(1), (2), and (3) of this section do not apply to an individual who holds a valid certificate issued by a nationally recognized S.C.U.B.A. diving certifying organization approved by the state board of pharmacy in rule, but only to the extent that the individual possesses medical oxygen or personally supplies medical oxygen for the purpose of emergency care or treatment at the scene of a diving emergency.

Division (C)(3) of this section does not apply to the board of education of a city, local, exempted village, or joint vocational school district, a school building operated by a school district board of education, a chartered or nonchartered nonpublic school, a community school, a STEM school, or a college-preparatory boarding school for the purpose of possessing epinephrine autoinjectors under section 3313.7110, 3313.7111, 3314.143, 3326.28, or 3328.29 of the Revised Code.

Division (C)(3) of this section does not apply to a residential camp, as defined in section 2151.011 of the Revised Code, a child day camp, as defined in section 5104.01 of the Revised Code, or a child day camp operated by any county, township, municipal corporation, township park district created under section 511.18 of the Revised Code, park district created under section 1545.04 of the Revised Code, or joint recreation district established under section 755.14 of the Revised Code for the purpose of possessing epinephrine autoinjectors under section 5101.76 of the Revised Code.

(D) No licensed terminal distributor of dangerous drugs shall purchase for the purpose of resale dangerous drugs from any person other than a registered wholesale distributor of dangerous drugs, except as follows:

(1) A licensed terminal distributor of dangerous drugs may make occasional purchases of dangerous drugs for resale from a pharmacist who is a licensed terminal distributor of dangerous drugs or who is employed by a licensed terminal distributor of dangerous drugs;

(2) A licensed terminal distributor of dangerous drugs having more than one establishment or place may transfer or receive dangerous drugs from one establishment or place for which a license has been issued to the terminal distributor to another establishment or place for which a license has been issued to the terminal distributor if the license issued for each establishment or place is in effect at the time of the transfer or receipt.

(E) No licensed terminal distributor of dangerous drugs shall engage in the sale or other distribution of dangerous drugs at retail or maintain possession, custody, or control of dangerous drugs for any purpose other than the distributor’s personal use or consumption, at any establishment or place other than that or those described in the license issued by the state board of pharmacy to such terminal distributor.

(F) Nothing in this section shall be construed to interfere with the performance of official duties by any law enforcement official authorized by municipal, county, state, or federal law to collect samples of any drug, regardless of its nature or in whose possession it may be.

(G) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in this section, the board of education of a city, local, exempted village, or joint vocational school district may deliver epinephrine autoinjectors to a school under its control for the purpose of possessing epinephrine autoinjectors under section 3313.7110 of the Revised Code.

Sec. 4729.60. (A) Before a registered wholesale distributor of dangerous drugs may sell dangerous drugs at wholesale to any person, other than the persons specified in divisions (B)(1)(a) to (d) and (B)(1), (f) to (h), (l), and (m) of section 4729.51 of the Revised Code, such wholesale distributor shall obtain from the purchaser and the purchaser shall furnish to the wholesale distributor a certificate indicating that the purchaser is a licensed terminal distributor of dangerous drugs. The certificate shall be in the form that the state board of pharmacy shall prescribe, and shall set forth the name of the licensee, the number of the license, a description of the place or establishment or each place or establishment for which the license was issued, the category of licensure, and, if the license is a limited category I, II, or III license, the dangerous drugs that the licensee is authorized to possess, have custody or control of, and distribute.

If no certificate is obtained or furnished before a sale is made, it shall be presumed that the sale of dangerous drugs by the wholesale distributor is in violation of division (B) of section 4729.51 of the Revised Code and the purchase of dangerous drugs by the purchaser is in violation of division (C) of section 4729.51 of the Revised Code. If a registered wholesale distributor of dangerous drugs obtains or is furnished a certificate from a terminal distributor of dangerous drugs and relies on the certificate in selling dangerous drugs at wholesale to the terminal distributor of dangerous drugs, the wholesale distributor of dangerous drugs shall be deemed not to have violated division (B) of section 4729.51 of the Revised Code in making the sale.

(B) Before a licensed terminal distributor of dangerous drugs may purchase dangerous drugs at wholesale, the terminal distributor shall obtain from the seller and the seller shall furnish to the terminal distributor the number of the seller’s registration certificate to engage in the sale of dangerous drugs at wholesale.

If no registration number is obtained or furnished before a purchase is made, it shall be presumed that the purchase of dangerous drugs by the terminal distributor is in violation of division (D) of section 4729.51 of the Revised Code and the sale of dangerous drugs by the seller is in violation of division (A) of section 4729.51 of the Revised Code. If a licensed terminal distributor of dangerous drugs obtains or is furnished a registration number from a wholesale distributor of dangerous drugs and relies on the registration number in purchasing dangerous drugs at wholesale from the wholesale distributor of dangerous drugs, the terminal distributor shall be deemed not to have violated division (D) of section 4729.51 of the Revised Code in making the purchase.

Sec. 5101.76. (A) A residential camp, as defined in section 2151.011 of the Revised Code, a child day camp, as defined in section 5104.01 of the Revised Code, or a child day camp operated by any county, township, municipal corporation, township park district created under section 511.18 of the Revised Code, park district created under section 1545.04 of the Revised Code, or joint recreation district established under section 755.14 of the Revised Code may procure epinephrine autoinjectors for use in emergency situations identified under division (C)(5) of this section. A camp that elects to procure epinephrine autoinjectors under this section is encouraged to maintain at least two epinephrine autoinjectors at all times.

(B) A camp that elects to procure epinephrine autoinjectors under this section shall adopt a policy governing their maintenance and use. Before adopting the policy, the camp shall consult with a licensed health professional authorized to prescribe drugs, as defined in section 4729.01 of the Revised Code.

(C) A component of a policy adopted by a camp under division (B) of this section shall be a prescriber-issued protocol specifying definitive orders for epinephrine autoinjectors and the dosages of epinephrine to be administered through them. The policy also shall do all of the following:

(1) Identify the one or more locations in which an epinephrine autoinjector must be stored;

(2) Specify the conditions under which an epinephrine autoinjector must be stored, replaced, and disposed;

(3) Specify the individuals employed by or under contract with the camp who may access and use an epinephrine autoinjector to provide a dosage of epinephrine to an individual in an emergency situation identified under division (C)(5) of this section;

(4) Specify any training that employees or contractors specified under division (C)(3) of this section must complete before being authorized to access and use an epinephrine autoinjector;

(5) Identify the emergency situations, including when an individual exhibits signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis, in which employees or contractors specified under division (C)(3) of this section may access and use an epinephrine autoinjector;

(6) Specify that assistance from an emergency medical service provider must be requested immediately after an epinephrine autoinjector is used;

(7) Specify the individuals to whom a dosage of epinephrine may be administered through an epinephrine autoinjector in an emergency situation specified under division (C)(5) of this section.

(D) A camp or camp employee or contractor is not liable in damages in a civil action for injury, death, or loss to person or property that allegedly arises from an act or omission associated with procuring, maintaining, accessing, or using an epinephrine autoinjector under this section, unless the act or omission constitutes willful or wanton misconduct.

This section does not eliminate, limit, or reduce any other immunity or defense that a camp or camp employee or contractor may be entitled to under Chapter 2744. or any other provision of the Revised Code or under the common law of this state.

(E) A camp may accept donations of epinephrine autoinjectors from a wholesale distributor of dangerous drugs, as defined in section 4729.01 of the Revised Code, and may accept donations of money from any person to purchase epinephrine autoinjectors.

(F) A camp that elects to procure epinephrine autoinjectors under this section shall report to the department of job and family services each procurement and occurrence in which an epinephrine autoinjector is used from a camp’s supply of epinephrine autoinjectors.

SECTION 2. That existing sections 3313.713, 3313.718, 4729.51, and 4729.60 of the Revised Code are hereby repealed.

Section 3. This act is hereby declared to be an emergency measure necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, and safety. The reason for such necessity is that allergic reactions can be life-threatening and Ohio schools and camps presently lack authorization to procure epinephrine autoinjectors to treat emergency anaphylaxis. Because anaphylaxis can lead to death or permanent damage within minutes, authorization to procure and timely administer epinephrine is critical. Therefore, this act shall go into immediate effect.

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ASTM standard I abstained on is a guaranteed lawsuit starter

I’m hurt because you did not check the weather correctly!

So this is the new standard that I was asked to vote on recently.

Withdraw With Replacement to F2993-2013 Guide for Monitoring Weather Conditions for Safe Parasail Operation WK47376 PDF (8.0K)

(SEE VOLUME 15.7)(CONCURRENT WITH .6500)

TECHNICAL CONTACT: Matt Dvorak

daytonaparasailing@hotmail.com

(386) 547-6067

When I don’t fully understand the issues or have not seen the actual standard (yes it is a little crazy trying to read what you are voting on sometimes) I abstain. I did so on this standard also.

Besides voting against a standard requires you to articulate the reasons why you are voting no on the standard. “This is stupid,” is not a good reason according to the ASTM. Nor is “this is going to help plaintiff’s win lawsuits” a valid reason for voting no.

However, can’t you see this doing nothing but creating legal nightmares.

“You said you checked the weather, and you said to launch, but the wind changed because a front moved/truck came by/that is what the wind does, and I crashed. You owed me a duty to check the weather; that duty is in writing, and you agreed to it by becoming a member of the ASTM and agreeing to the standard (or not agreeing to the standard; you are still held to the standard), and my injuries are a result of you not following the standard.”

Duh

Somewhere, the ASTM, there is an idea that the creation of standards stops lawsuits, but even the ASTM can’t show any proof of that.

What do you think? Leave a comment.

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#AdventureTourism, #AdventureTravelLaw, #AdventureTravelLawyer, #AttorneyatLaw, #Backpacking, #BicyclingLaw, #Camps, #ChallengeCourse, #ChallengeCourseLaw, #ChallengeCourseLawyer, #CyclingLaw, #FitnessLaw, #FitnessLawyer, #Hiking, #HumanPowered, #HumanPoweredRecreation, #IceClimbing, #JamesHMoss, #JimMoss, #Law, #Mountaineering, #Negligence, #OutdoorLaw, #OutdoorRecreationLaw, #OutsideLaw, #OutsideLawyer, #RecLaw, #Rec-Law, #RecLawBlog, #Rec-LawBlog, #RecLawyer, #RecreationalLawyer, #RecreationLaw, #RecreationLawBlog, #RecreationLawcom, #Recreation-Lawcom, #Recreation-Law.com, #RiskManagement, #RockClimbing, #RockClimbingLawyer, #RopesCourse, #RopesCourseLawyer, #SkiAreas, #Skiing, #SkiLaw, #Snowboarding, #SummerCamp, #Tourism, #TravelLaw, #YouthCamps, #ZipLineLawyer, ASTM, American Society of Testing & Material, Parasailing, Paragliding, Hangliding, weather,

 


Last Chance to get a Great Copy of Roads Were Not Built for Cars

Roads Were Not Built For Cars email banner

Roads Were Not Built For Cars availability information

The iPad version of Roads Were Not Built For Cars has just gone live. It contains the full 170,000 words of the print book plus ten short videos, two audio files, a 3D object to play with, and 580+ illustrations, most of which zoom to full screen. Access it via an iPad on iBookstore.

Now, good news for those who wanted a print version of the book – a few have become available. Softbacks only. When they’re gone, they’re gone.

The Kindle versions have been available for a while. All Kickstarter backers should now have their print books, even those in the Antipodes. Of those who pre-ordered I still have 150 to mail out – if you’re one of those folks, I’m sorry for the delay. I underestimated how long it would take to sign, pack and mail 1000 books.

The iPad version of the book costs £14.99 on iBookstore. I set it at £18 but Apple automatically dropped me down a tier. I will work on fixing this for version 1.1. Those who pre-ordered and paid £18 for their iPad versions were sent download info yesterday (pre-orderers who want three quid refunds should get in touch, supplying their PayPal order no so I can trace them).

The website is where the notes live (I need to work on those, too) and there are sporadic stories on the blog, too. For instance, earlier today I posted a story about a dodgy claim on cycle safety from a 1902 car mag which has been debunked by a modern automotive tester.

I’ll also be rolling out the book’s promotional campaign, including talks, book reviews and guest postings. There’s an article on motoring.co.uk, which went live today, and is headlined Why motorists owe EVERYTHING to cyclists (it’s not my headline, but I like it).

Thanks.

Carlton

PS
The Kickstarter Kindle special is available only on Gumroad.com, as is the ePub version. The standard Kindle version is available on Gumroad and on Amazon (Amazon takes a far bigger cut than Gumroad).

e6ceccd8-e223-4042-a8db-9b134c6c8e52.jpg

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Bradford Washington American Mountaineering Museum has several Great Films Scheduled this Fall

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A recall leads to lawsuits because injuries are connected to the product being recalled thus a lawsuit. Plaintiff’s hope the three can be connected

Plaintiff crashed her bike suffering head injuries. Plaintiff was wearing a bicycle helmet that was subject to a recall, earlier. Plaintiff hoped her injury could be paid by the helmet manufacturer using the recall as the influence with the jury.

Jenish v. Monarch Velo Llc dba Catlike USA, 2007 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 34120; CCH Prod. Liab. Rep. P17,754 (E.D. Mich. S.D. 2007)

State: Michigan

Plaintiff: Tracy Ann Jenish

Defendant: Monarch Velo Llc dba Catlike USA, a Texas Corporation, The Kreb Cycle, a New York Corporation, and Catlike Sport Components SL

Plaintiff Claims: negligence, gross negligence, and breach of warranty

Defendant Defenses:

Holding: for the defendant

Year: 2007

This is why recalls are such a problem. The recalls themselves are a nightmare for the outdoor recreation industry because the problems don’t fit in the Consumer Product Safety Council (CPSC) mold. The cost goes through the roof trying to comply with the requirements of the recall and deal with the resulting bad publicity.

The biggest problem is recalls immediately show up on plaintiff attorney’s websites with the line have you been hurt using/wearing this product “call us.”

In this case, the plaintiff purchased a bicycle helmet from the defendant retailer. The bicycle helmet was subject to a recall prior to the plaintiff’s crash. The plaintiff exchanged the helmet for a newer one due to the recall, prior to her crash. The plaintiff fell while riding her bike suffering head and other injuries and sued.

The first defendant was a retailer in New York. The retailer purchased the helmet from a distributor in Texas. The distributor imported the helmet from the manufacturer, a Spanish corporation. All three, the manufacturer, distributor and retailer were defendants to the litigation. All three were in the chain of sale from the manufacturer to the consumer.

The theory behind allowing suits against everyone involved in the litigation is anyone in the chain could have spotted the defect and prevented the consumer from purchasing a defective product. That was a great theory when wagon wheels were being sold. Everyone understood wagon wheels and could see a flaw or defect in a wagon wheel before the consumer purchased the wheel.

That general theory does not work any longer in software, computers or in this case a bike helmet. If you could understand the physics and engineering behind the creation of the helmet, you could not see the defects in many cases because the defects are covered by plastic.

The suit was filed in Michigan the home state of the plaintiff in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan, Southern Division. Federal courts are the courts in place to deal with litigation between parties from different states or of the US and another country. The federal courts are not subject to the issue of “hometowning” or deciding a case solely on the issue of where the parties live the courts’ hometown.

The three defendants filed a motion for summary judgment, which was granted.

Federal District Court decisions are reported. Very few states report trial court decisions. However, this is different in the federal system, and we have an interesting case.

Analysis: making sense of the law based on these facts.

The plaintiff dismissed its negligence and gross negligence claims and proceeded on its breach of warranty claims prior to this motion. The plaintiff stated there was no express warranty claim, only a breach of implied warranty. Implied warranties are warranties that attach to any sale. They are not written down on in the manual, they occur whenever there is a sale. Implied warranty of merchantability and implied warranty of fitness for a particular purpose are warranties that go with every sale and are the two main claims in lawsuits.

These warranties are not in writing and unless disclaimed, they go with any sale. The first, warranty of merchantability means the product meets the requirements of the industry where they are sold. The implied warranty of fitness for a particular purpose is a warranty that the promises made by the sellers will be met by the product. For more information on these warranties see The legal relationship created between manufactures and US consumers.

No specific warranty was mentioned in the decision other than the warranty of fitness and merchantability. There were also allegations that there was a breach of warranty under Michigan’s law, which may be the same or different from the warranties explained above.

The plaintiff’s case was based on the recall. The CPSC required recall “poster” which was entered into evidence as proof of the recall and the defect. The plaintiff also had an expert who opined that plaintiff’s head injury “directly related to the inadequacies of the Catlike Kompact bike helmet.”

No other evidence was introduced. The expert’s opinion was not specific, and did not provide any cause for the injury or the failure of the helmet. The court held that because there was no analysis of the crash, speed, location of impact or details of the accident that the expert’s opinion was of no value.

As discussed at oral argument, plaintiff has not brought forth any evidence of the reason the Catlike Kompact helmet failed impact testing. All that has been presented is a one-page press release from the CPSC, set forth above, including a statement that “[t]he helmets fail impact testing required un-der CPSC’s safety standard for bicycle helmets, violating the Consumer Product Safety Act.” Without additional information from the CPSC or any other source, or the results of any independent testing, it is the opinion of the court that Dr. Kress’ statement that “[t]he severity of the head injury sustained by Ms. Jenish is a direct result of the inability of the Catlike Kompact to comply to the CPSC’s safety standards” can be nothing but inadmissible speculation.

Although warranty claims require very little evidence to prove, in this case, no evidence was presented that the court could rely upon to uphold the claims of the plaintiff. The court granted the three defendants motion and dismissed the case.

So Now What?

This case has little value in teaching about helmet crashes, and the liability issues involved in manufacturing helmets. What it does teach is the unintended consequence of dealing with a recall and the CPSC.  

It is impossible, probably, now days to create a product that will never have a recall. However, that does not mean you should try. As important, if you are looking at a recall, make sure you fully understand the consequences and work with counsel to lessen the impacts of the recall on your company and the effects it may have.

You also must disclaim all warranties other than the warranties you want for your product. If the proper disclaimer had been part of the information going with the sale of the helmet than this case would not have gone this far.

It is common for many products in the outdoor recreation industry to be brought into the US without the proper warranties and disclaimers. Additionally, many times when translated a product manual the word warranty will be translated into the word guaranty in English, which creates even greater liability issues.

 

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By Recreation Law       Rec-law@recreation-law.com              James H. Moss               #Authorrank

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2014 VeloSwap: Into Cycling you need to be there if you Need a deal or got deals to sell

MEDIA ADVISORY

Wheelin’ and Dealin’ at Cyclists’ Ultimate Bargain Hunt

· Subaru VeloSwap Denver returns to National Western Complex Sat., Oct 18

· 10,000 expected to buy, sell and swap bikes, gear, parts and accessories

· Find the best deals of the year as bike shops and more clear out inventory!

What: Inspired by the excitement of the USA Pro Cycling Challenge? Dreaming of a new set of wheels? Get ready to ride at the Subaru VeloSwap Denver, the ultimate bargain treasure hunt for cycling enthusiasts. A true celebration of all things cycling, the event features the opportunity to buy, sell and recycle new and used bicycles and equipment. Find the rarest parts and the best deals, while recycling your old gear! Veloswap.com
When: Saturday, October 18, 20149:00am – 4:00pm
Where: National Western Complex4655 Humboldt St.
Denver, CO 80216
Who: · Almost 10,000 people are expected to attend· 300+ exhibitors will have the best deals cyclists will see all year

· Thousands start lining up outside as early as 6:00am to get the best deals

Tickets:
More:
  • Subaru VeloSwap Denver supports a number of cycling non-profits, including Bike Denver, Bicycle Colorado, and Bicycle Aurora, who work to keep bicycling safe and accessible to the community. The Subaru VeloSwap also gives back to the community by providing a forum to find and return stolen bikes.
  • Subaru VeloSwap focuses on being green, by helping cyclists reuse and recycle. An expanded Eco-Village will house many new companies and the Subaru Roving Recycler will help keep the event clean and green.

· New!! – New Product Showcase; check out the new 2015 equipment and talk with company reps about the latest and greatest in the industry including Bianchi, Parlee, Focus, Pedego E-Bikes and more.

· Participants are invited to attend unique and informative seminars from Natural Grocers and others and enter to win amazing raffle prizes.

· The day will conclude with live music in the supplier area.

Green Guru will be there taking your old tubes and recycling them into new products.

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