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New Book Aids Both CEOs and Students

“Outdoor Recreation Insurance, Risk Management, and Law” is a definitive guide to preventing and overcoming legal issues in the outdoor recreation industry

Denver based James H. Moss, JD, an attorney who specializes in the legal issues of outdoor recreation and adventure travel companies, guides, outfitters, and manufacturers, has written a comprehensive legal guidebook titled, “Outdoor Recreation Insurance, Risk Management, and Law”. Sagamore Publishing, a well-known Illinois-based educational publisher, distributes the book.

Mr. Moss, who applied his 30 years of experience with the legal, insurance, and risk management issues of the outdoor industry, wrote the book in order to fill a void.

There was nothing out there that looked at case law and applied it to legal problems in outdoor recreation,” Moss explained. “The goal of this book is to provide sound advice based on past law and experience.”

The Reference book is sold via the Summit Magic Publishing, LLC.

While written as a college-level textbook, the guide also serves as a legal primer for executives, managers, and business owners in the field of outdoor recreation. It discusses how to tackle, prevent, and overcome legal issues in all areas of the industry.

The book is organized into 14 chapters that are easily accessed as standalone topics, or read through comprehensively. Specific topics include rental programs, statues that affect outdoor recreation, skiing and ski areas, and defenses to claims. Mr. Moss also incorporated listings of legal definitions, cases, and statutes, making the book easy for laypeople to understand.

PURCHASE

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of Cases

Introduction

Outdoor Recreation Law and Insurance: Overview

Risk

    Risk

        Perception versus Actual Risk

        Risk v. Reward

        Risk Evaluation

    Risk Management Strategies

        Humans & Risk

        Risk = Accidents

        Accidents may/may not lead to litigation

    How Do You Deal with Risk?

    How Does Acceptance of Risk Convert to Litigation?

    Negative Feelings against the Business

Risk, Accidents & Litigation

        No Real Acceptance of the Risk

        No Money to Pay Injury Bills

        No Health Insurance

        Insurance Company Subrogation

        Negative Feelings

Litigation

    Dealing with Different People

    Dealing with Victims

        Develop a Friend & Eliminate a Lawsuit

        Don’t Compound Minor Problems into Major Lawsuits

    Emergency Medical Services

    Additional Causes of Lawsuits in Outdoor Recreation

        Employees

        How Do You Handle A Victim?

        Dealing with Different People

        Dealing with Victims

Legal System in the United States

    Courts

        State Court System

        Federal Court System

        Other Court Systems

    Laws

    Statutes

    Parties to a Lawsuit

    Attorneys

    Trials

Law

    Torts

        Negligence

            Duty

            Breach of the Duty

            Injury

            Proximate Causation

            Damages

        Determination of Duty Owed

        Duty of an Outfitter

        Duty of a Guide

        Duty of Livery Owner

        Duty of Rental Agent

        Duty of Volunteer Youth Leader

        In Loco Parentis

    Intentional Torts

    Gross Negligence

    Willful & Wanton Negligence

    Intentional Negligence

    Negligence Per Se

    Strict Liability

    Attractive Nuisance

    Results of Acts That Are More than Ordinary Negligence

    Product Liability

    Contracts

        Breach of Contract

        Breach of Warranty

        Express Warranty

        Implied Warranty

            Warranty of Fitness for a Particular Purpose

            Warranty of Merchantability

            Warranty of Statute

    Detrimental Reliance

    Unjust Enrichment

    Liquor Liability

    Food Service Liability

    Damages

        Compensatory Damages

        Special Damages

        Punitive Damages

Statutory Defenses

    Skier Safety Acts

    Whitewater Guides & Outfitters

    Equine Liability Acts

 

Legal Defenses

    Assumption of Risk

        Express Assumption of Risk

        Implied Assumption of Risk

        Primary Assumption of Risk

        Secondary Assumption of Risk

    Contributory Negligence

    Assumption of Risk & Minors

    Inherent Dangers

    Assumption of Risk Documents.

        Assumption of Risk as a Defense.

        Statutory Assumption of Risk

        Express Assumption of Risk

    Contributory Negligence

    Joint and Several Liability

Release, Waivers & Contracts Not to Sue

    Why do you need them

    Exculpatory Agreements

        Releases

        Waivers

        Covenants Not to sue

    Who should be covered

    What should be included

        Negligence Clause

        Jurisdiction & Venue Clause

        Assumption of Risk

        Other Clauses

        Indemnification

            Hold Harmless Agreement

        Liquidated Damages

        Previous Experience

        Misc

            Photography release

            Video Disclaimer

            Drug and/or Alcohol clause

            Medical Transportation & Release

                HIPAA

        Problem Areas

    What the Courts do not want to see

Statute of Limitations

        Minors

        Adults

Defenses Myths

    Agreements to Participate

    Parental Consent Agreements

    Informed Consent Agreements

    Certification

    Accreditation

    Standards, Guidelines & Protocols

    License

Specific Occupational Risks

    Personal Liability of Instructors, Teachers & Educators

        College & University Issues

    Animal Operations, Packers

        Equine Activities

    Canoe Livery Operations

        Tube rentals

Downhill Skiing

Ski Rental Programs

Indoor Climbing Walls

Instructional Programs

Mountaineering

Retail Rental Programs

Rock Climbing

Tubing Hills

Whitewater Rafting

Risk Management Plan

    Introduction for Risk Management Plans

    What Is A Risk Management Plan?

    What should be in a Risk Management Plan

    Risk Management Plan Template

    Ideas on Developing a Risk Management Plan

    Preparing your Business for Unknown Disasters

    Building Fire & Evacuation

Dealing with an Emergency

 

Insurance

    Theory of Insurance

    Insurance Companies

    Deductibles

    Self-Insured Retention

    Personal v. Commercial Policies

    Types of Policies

        Automobile

            Comprehension

            Collision

            Bodily Injury

            Property Damage

            Uninsured Motorist

            Personal Injury Protection

            Non-Owned Automobile

            Hired Car

    Fire Policy

        Coverage

        Liability

        Named Peril v. All Risk

    Commercial Policies

    Underwriting

    Exclusions

    Special Endorsements

    Rescue Reimbursement

    Policy Procedures

    Coverage’s

    Agents

    Brokers

        General Agents

        Captive Agents

    Types of Policies

        Claims Made

        Occurrence

    Claims

    Federal and State Government Insurance Requirements

Bibliography

Index

The 427-page volume is sold via Summit Magic Publishing, LLC.

 

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Texas appellate court upholds release for claims of gross negligence in trampoline accident that left plaintiff a paraplegic.

However, the decision is not reasoned and supported in Texas by other decisions or the Texas Supreme Court.

Quiroz et. al. v. Jumpstreet8, Inc., et. al., 2018 Tex. App. LEXIS 5107

State: Texas, Court of Appeals of Texas, Fifth District, Dallas

Plaintiff: Graciela Quiroz, Individually, a/n/f of Xxxx (“John Doe 1”) and Xxxx (“John Doe 2”), Minors, and Robert Sullivan, Individually, a/n/f of Xxxx (“John Doe 3”)

Defendant: Jumpstreet8, Inc., Jumpstreet, Inc. and Jumpstreet Construction, Inc.

Plaintiff Claims: negligence and gross negligence and as next friend of two minor children for their loss of parental consortium and their bystander claims for mental anguish.

Defendant Defenses: Release

Holding: for the Defendant

Year: 2018

Summary

Adult paralyzed in a trampoline facility sues for her injuries. The release she signed before entering stopped all of her claims, including her claim for gross negligence.

However, the reasoning behind the support for the release to stop the gross negligence claim was not in the decision, so this is a tenuous decision at best.

Facts

The plaintiff and her sixteen-year-old son went to the defendant’s business. Before entering she signed a release. While on a trampoline, the plaintiff attempted to do a back flip, landed on her head and was rendered a paraplegic from the waist down.

The plaintiff sued on her behalf and on behalf of her minor. Her claim was a simple tort claim for negligence. Her children’s claims were based on the loss of parental consortium and under Texas law bystander claims for seeing the accident or seeing their mother suffer. The plaintiff’s husband also joined in the lawsuit later for his loss of consortium claims.

The defendant filed a motion for summary judgment which the trial court granted and the plaintiff appealed.

Analysis: making sense of the law based on these facts.

The original entity named on the release was a corporation that was no longer in existence. Several successor entities now owned and controlled the defendant. The plaintiff argued the release did not protect them because the release only spoke to the one defendant.

The court did not agree, finding language in the release that stated the release applied to all “jumpstreet entities that engaged in the trampoline business.”

…it also stated the Release equally applied to “its parent, subsidiaries, affiliates, other related entities, successors, owners, members, directors, officers, shareholders, agents, employees, servants, assigns, investors, legal representatives and all individuals and entities involved in the operation of Jumpstreet.”

The next argument was whether the release met the requirements on Texas law for a release. The court pointed out bold and capital letters were used to point out important parts of the release. An assumption of the risk section was separate and distance from the release of liability section, and the release warned people to read the document carefully before signing.

Texas also has an express negligence rule, the requirements of which were also met by the way the release was written.

Further, on page one in the assumption of risk paragraphs, the person signing the Release acknowledges the “potentially hazardous activity,” and the Release lists possible injuries including “but not limited to” sprains, heart attack, and even death. Although paralysis is not specifically named as an injury, it is certainly less than death and thus would be included within the “but not limited to” language. Also, the release of liability paragraph above Quiroz’s signature expressly lists the types of claims and causes of action she is waiving, including “negligence claims, gross negligence claims, personal injury claims, and mental anguish claims.

Next the plaintiff argued that the release covered her and her sixteen-year-old minor son. As such the release should be void because it attempted to cover a minor and releases in Texas do not work for minors.

The court ignored this argument stating it was not the minor who was hurt and suing; it was the plaintiff who was an adult. The court then also added that the other plaintiffs were also covered under the release because all of their claims, loss of parental consortium and loss of consortium are derivative claims. Meaning they only succeed if the plaintiff s claim succeeds.

The final argument was the plaintiff plead negligence and gross negligence in her complaint. A release in Texas, like most other states, was argued by the plaintiff to not be valid.

The appellate court did not see that argument as clearly. First, the Texas Supreme Court had not reviewed that issue. Other appellate courts have held that there is no difference in Texas between a claim for negligence and a claim for gross negligence.

The Texas Supreme Court has not ruled on whether a pre-injury release as to gross negligence is against public policy when there is no assertion that intentional, deliberate, or reckless acts cause injury. Some appellate courts have held that negligence, and gross negligence are not separable claims and a release of liability for negligence also releases a party from liability for gross negligence.

(For other arguments like this see In Nebraska a release can defeat claims for gross negligence for health club injury.)

The court looked at the release which identified negligence and gross negligence as claims that the release would stop.

Quiroz’s Release specifically stated that both negligence and gross negligence claims were waived. The assumption of risk paragraph that lists the specific types of claims/causes of actions that were included in the Release was encased in a box, had all capital lettering, and appeared above the signature line. As noted above, Quiroz received fair notice regarding the claims being waived.

Although not specifically writing in the opinion why the release stopped the gross negligence claims, the court upheld the release for all the plaintiff claims.

…Quiroz’s Release specifically stated that both negligence and gross negligence claims were waived. The assumption of risk paragraph that lists the specific types of claims/causes of actions that were included in the Release was encased in a box, had all capital lettering, and appeared above the signature line. As noted above, Quiroz received fair notice regarding the claims being waived.

The court affirmed the trial court’s dismissal of the plaintiff’s claims.

So Now What?

First this case is a great example of believing that once you have a release you don’t have to do anything else. If the defendant’s release would have been checked every year, someone should have noticed that the named entity to be protected no longer existed.

In this case that fact did not become a major issue, however, in other states the language might not have been broad enough to protect everyone.

Second, this case is also proof that being specific with possible risks of the activities and have an assumption of risk section pays off.

Finally, would I go out and pronounce that Texas allows a release to stop claims for gross negligence. No. Finger’s crossed until the Texas Supreme Court rules on the issue or another appellate court in Texas provides reasoning for its argument, this is thin support for that statement.

What do you think? Leave a comment.

Copyright 2017 Recreation Law (720) 334 8529

If you like this let your friends know or post it on FB, Twitter or LinkedIn

If you are interested in having me write your release, fill out this Information Form and Contract and send it to me.

Author: Outdoor Recreation Insurance, Risk Management and Law

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Email: Rec-law@recreation-law.com

By Recreation Law    Rec-law@recreation-law.com    James H. Moss

#AdventureTourism, #AdventureTravelLaw, #AdventureTravelLawyer, #AttorneyatLaw, #Backpacking, #BicyclingLaw, #Camps, #ChallengeCourse, #ChallengeCourseLaw, #ChallengeCourseLawyer, #CyclingLaw, #FitnessLaw, #FitnessLawyer, #Hiking, #HumanPowered, #HumanPoweredRecreation, #IceClimbing, #JamesHMoss, #JimMoss, #Law, #Mountaineering, #Negligence, #OutdoorLaw, #OutdoorRecreationLaw, #OutsideLaw, #OutsideLawyer, #RecLaw, #Rec-Law, #RecLawBlog, #Rec-LawBlog, #RecLawyer, #RecreationalLawyer, #RecreationLaw, #RecreationLawBlog, #RecreationLawcom, #Recreation-Lawcom, #Recreation-Law.com, #RiskManagement, #RockClimbing, #RockClimbingLawyer, #RopesCourse, #RopesCourseLawyer, #SkiAreas, #Skiing, #SkiLaw, #Snowboarding, #SummerCamp, #Tourism, #TravelLaw, #YouthCamps, #ZipLineLawyer, #RecreationLaw, #OutdoorLaw, #OutdoorRecreationLaw, #SkiLaw,


Outdoor Recreation Insurance, Risk Management and Law Available Now

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Available Now!

Outdoor Recreation Insurance, Risk Management, and Law

James H. Moss

As the field of outdoor recreation continues to grow, risk and risk management continue to take on a greater level of importance. Smart organizations see changes coming and evolve and adapt with new strategies for managing risk. In the late 1980s, the outdoor recreation industry moved into the litigation phase and the number of court cases grew exponentially. It is unlikely that litigation and the importance of risk management will be moving out of this field in the 21st century. Outdoor Recreation Insurance, Risk Management, and Law was developed to help train and educate students and professionals in the field. The author, James H. Moss, is the leading expert in the field of outdoor recreation, insurance, risk management, and the law.
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Table of Contents

Chapter One

Outdoor Recreation Risk Management, Law, and Insurance: An Overview

Chapter Two

U.S. Legal System and Legal Research

Chapter Three

Risk

Chapter Four

Risk, Accidents, and Litigation: Why People Sue

Chapter Five

Law

Chapter Six

Statutes That Affect Outdoor Recreation

Chapter Seven

Preinjury Contracts to Prevent Litigation: Releases

Chapter Eight

Defenses to Claims

Chapter Nine

Minors

Chapter Ten

Skiing and Ski Areas

Chapter Eleven

Other Commercial Recreational Activities

Chapter Twelve

Water Sports, Paddlesports, and Water-Based Activities

Chapter Thirteen

Rental Programs

Chapter Fourteen

Insurance

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Copyright: 2015

Format: Paperback

Dimensions: 7 x 10

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If you are a college or university instructor, you may request a desk copy for a 45-day review period. If you adopt the book as your course text and place an order through your bookstore, notify us, and the desk copy is yours to keep. If you do not adopt the book, you may (a) return it in mint condition or (b) purchase it at a 50% discount. Desk copies may be requested on our website by logging in with an educator account and clicking the desk copy link located on the book’s webpage.

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Another trade associations confuses marketing and law: if you don’t understand the legal meaning of a word don’t use it like you do

ATTA article promotes goals for guides worldwide by calling them standards which in the US are the legally lowest possible acceptable level of acting.

The Adventure Travel Trade Association recently posted an article showing their research indicated that no standards existed for guides. Those standards were promoted by the association as needed to promote quality.

We view standards as critical to the future of the adventure travel industry’s success. As it is growing radically in participation numbers, it’s key that the operators expanding and joining the industry be of the best quality.

Their research is slightly flawed. Several states have laws regarding guiding, Colorado, West Virginia, Montana and California. Furthermore, the UIAA control and create guide standards in Europe, the International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation. In Europe, these guide standards are the law in some countries.

The person who promoted the idea for the ATTA gave reasons for the need for standards.

“Why do we need a more universal standard?” asked Moore, “Because the adventure travel sector is growing, because tour operators around the world are demanding it, and because destinations need it to legitimately promote adventure activities”

The idea is to create standards in a proposed group in five areas. Those areas include medical care and technical knowledge.

Based on the article clearly the ATTA is attempting to create qualifications for being a good guide. The unanswered question is, is this being done for safety reasons or for marketing reasons?

No matter the reason, the attempt will create legal problems. Legally, standards are the proof of the poorest quality not the best. A legal standard is the lowest acceptable level of care. If you fall below the legal standard, you have breached a duty of care you may owe to someone. Three examples of this are:

New Jersey Model Jury Instructions state:

5.10A            NEGLIGENCE AND ORDINARY CARE – GENERAL

To summarize, every person is required to exercise the foresight, prudence and caution which a reasonably prudent person would exercise under the same or similar circumstances.  Negligence then is a departure from that standard of care.

The Restatement of Torts is a compendium of the law.

Restatement Second of Torts, section 282, defines negligence as “conduct which falls below the standard established by law for the protection of others against unreasonable risk of harm.”

Colorado Jury Instructions, the law given to a jury when they go to the jury room to make their decisions about a case defines standard as:

CJI-Civ. 9:9 (CLE Ed. 2009)

Jury instructions define “standard of care” as “a duty to use that degree of care which a person of similar age, experience and intelligence would ordinarily use under the same or similar circumstances.”

If you fall below the standard of care and there is an injury you have breached a duty of care to a guest. You are on your way to helping the injured guest prove you are negligent.

Remember negligence is:

·         Duty

·         Breach of that Duty

·         Injury proximately caused by the Breach of Duty

·         Damages

In order to determine if there was a breach of a duty, the jury must determine the standard of care which the defendant fell below. If a trade association lists the requirements for the standard of care, puts them on the Internet or in a book, then the association has helped put its members in a courtroom. The plaintiff instead of struggling to establish the care was below the acceptable level need only to refer to the trade association as proof of the association member’s negligence.

Standards are Not Goals or Minimum Levels of Knowledge or Skill

It is obvious from the article that the association believes the standards will be goals to which its membership will strive for its guides to attain. You can probably post on your door or website that your guides meet the standards as established by your trade association. If that happens, then no matter how much the word safety is thrown out there for proof of the reasoning, the actual reasoning is a marketing program.

Either one will still sink a member.

In effect, you are handing the attorney for an injured guest the keys to open your bank account or insurance policy and take out money by creating or having an association create standards for your industry.

If you want actual examples of this look at the Climbing Wall Association or the Association of Experiential Education. The Climbing Wall Association changed their standards to best practices, and the AEE is about gone. Is the AEE having problems a result of their “standards?” I don’t know. I do know that both organizations were big in creating standards, and their members were sued a lot. See Payouts in Outdoor Recreation

If you don’t have the time or ability or your standards are beat to a pulp in a courtroom then you starting writing meaningless crap for standards. “You should have adequate guides for the number of guests in your group.” That statement has no value and thankfully brings nothing to the courtroom, so why kill a tree by creating it?

Besides can you create one set of standards that work worldwide let along across state lines?

A medical standard is the easiest to use as an example. A standard is created based on US or UK realities. Advanced professional first aid care (EMS) is available within roughly a four-hour window. Your guides are trained in first aid based on that four-hour window.

These standards are then applied to an area where there is no EMS. Transportation to a hospital may take days, and the hospital may not come close to the idea an American may visualize when they think of hospitals.

If a US guest is injured in that area of the world will the standard apply? Yes, you agreed to the standard or the association created the standard. If nothing else the jury will see the standard as what they should use to measure the care the injured guest received.

Are you going to argue to a jury that the standards not to apply because you took the US or EU client to a third-world country? Then the jury may look at you and determine either you should have done something to ensure the safety, which you did not, or you should not have gone there. Why, because you can’t meet the standard of care, your organization created.

Look at a simple cut. On a mountain in Nepal, you would immediately stop the bleeding and bandage the wound. In some jungles of South America or South-East Asia, you may want the wound to bleed a little to help clean the wound of any bacteria or other nasty’s that entered through the cut.

How do you write the standard for Kilimanjaro where the first two days are hiking through a jungle, and the next days are spent on the mountain?

The easiest example was the classic mistake of the AEE’s first set of standards. The standards stated you must pee 100 yards from any water. In the Southwest on river trips, this may get you fined by the federal agency managing the river you are rafting. There you pee in the river. What do you do if your standard violates state or federal law? What if your standard violates a religion?

Time and Upkeep

The biggest issue with standards is upkeep. It takes months, sometimes years to create standards, how do you keep them up to date? You have navigated your way through the difference requirements of different countries, trips and laws and then a law changes, a technique improves or better first aid care becomes available.

How do you go back and re-write the standard? When do you re-write the standard? How do you communicate the new standard? How do you convince your members to change to the new standard after they have spent time training their employees on the old standard and invested money in meeting it?

If you are using the old standard after a new standard comes out do you have a grace period? (No, this was a trick question.)

Just create great ideas. Educate members and guests on what to look for in a good guide. Provide education so guides can get better.

Don’t hang a noose around your member’s necks and call it marketing.

See ATTA Advances Conversation on Adventure Guide Qualification and Performance Standards

For more articles on this topic see:

If you mix up your language, you will be held to the wrong standard in court

Marketing is marketing and Risk Management is not marketing

Can a Standard Impeded Inventions?

If you mix up your language, you will be held to the wrong standard in court

If your organization says you do something and you are a member of the organization you better do it or be able to explain why you did not

Words: You cannot change a legal definition

For articles on Association Standards have been used to sue members see:

ACA Standards are used by Expert for the Plaintiff in a lawsuit against a Camp

Expert Witness Report: ACA “Standards” are used by Expert for the Plaintiff in a lawsuit against a Camp

Industry standards are proof of gross negligence and keep defendant in lawsuit even with good release

Plaintiff uses standards of ACCT to cost defendant $4.7 million

So if you write standards, you can, then use them to make money when someone sues your competitors

Trade Association Standards sink a Summer Camp when plaintiff uses them to prove Camp was negligent

What do you think? Leave a comment.

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Copyright 2013 Recreation Law (720) Edit Law

Email: Rec-law@recreation-law.com

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By Recreation Law       Rec-law@recreation-law.com         James H. Moss    #Authorrank

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Good advice but bad releases can be found at this website.

The disclaimers at the bottom of the free documents are the most important part; you need YOUR attorney to write your release.

I check out this site for information I can pass on: Sadler Sports & Recreation Insurance. A couple of times a year, I pass on good information. At the same time, all websites (even this one) can pass on bad information and Sadler Sports & Recreation Insurance is no exception. They are offering free releases. Here is the disclaimer.

This is a SAMPLE WAIVER FORM only. Final wording should be as directed by the insured’s counsel, but must observe the principles represented within the above. This form provided courtesy of K&K Insurance Group.

The releases are from K&K Insurance Group. K&K is a great insurance company in the outdoor recreation industry. At the same time, by providing bad releases, they are creating their own claims.

The first release offered is a release for a parent to waive a minor’s claims. That only work in a few states. (See States that allow a parent to sign away a minor’s right to sue.) So in every other state, you need an assumption of risk form. This “release” is not that. In those few states that do accept a release to stop a minor’s claims, this release does not meet the requirements of two of the states.

Neither release has a jurisdiction and venue clause. That would allow the injured plaintiff to bring a suit and argue the lawsuit should be in a state where releases are not supported. (See States that do not Support the Use of a Release.) The adult release also includes a place for a parent to sign for a child. (???)

Find an attorney that knows what you do, understands release law and can write a release for you. If you want to print and hand the attorney, these releases (as a joke) do so. If the attorney uses them…..find another attorney.

See Sadler Sports & Recreation Insurance

What do you think? Leave a comment.

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Copyright 2014 Recreation Law (720) Edit Law

Email: Rec-law@recreation-law.com

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By Recreation Law    Rec-law@recreation-law.com         James H. Moss         #Authorrank

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Release and proof of knowledge stop claim from bicycle racer.

Records help prove even if your release is weak, the plaintiff really understood the risks.

Walton v. Oz Bicycle Club of Wichita, 1991 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 17655

Plaintiff: Eric Walton

Defendant: Oz Bicycle Club

Plaintiff Claims: negligence

Defendant Defenses: (1) that the release signed by Walton bars the present action; (2) that Walton assumed the risk of the injuries received; and (3) that Oz assumed no duty of due care towards Walton

Holding: for the defendant

In Walton v. Oz Bicycle Club of Wichita, the federal district court upheld a release used in a bicycle race. The race was held in Wichita Kansas, by the Oz Bicycle Club of Wichita. The plaintiff was rounding a corner in the lead on an open race course when he swerved to miss a car and crashed. An open bicycle race course means cars are on the roadway. An open course is not closed to traffic or pedestrians. A closed course, all cars have been prohibited on the course.

The defendant bicycle club filed a motion for summary judgment, which was granted by the court. The plaintiff when he signed up for the race was handed a release which he signed. The plaintiff had raced twenty to thirty times before and signed releases each time. He did not read this release but had read others and knew what he was signing. Prior to the start of the race the plaintiff had been informed that the course was not closed. The plaintiff encountered  traffic on the race course at least twice prior to his crash.

The plaintiff was an employee of a bicycle manufacturing company which was also a sponsor of the race.

Summary of the case

The court first reviewed the issue of whether Assumption of Risk was a defense at this time in Kansas. The court concluded it probably not because the Kansas Supreme Court had not handed down a decision that was specific in stating assumption of risk was a defense in Kansas.

The court quoted the heading and four paragraphs of the release in its decision. The heading of the release read: “NOTICE: THIS ENTRY BLANK AND RELEASE FORM IS A CONTRACT WITH LEGAL CONSEQUENCES. READ IT CAREFULLY BEFORE SIGNING.”

The plaintiff argued that releases were not favored under Kansas law; however, the plaintiff never showed how the release at issue, was void under Kansas law.

The court in one paragraph summed up the requirements for the release to be valid under Kansas law:

Although exculpatory agreements have an inherent potential for abuse and overreaching, and hence are subjected to close scrutiny by the courts, these agreements have a vital role to play in allowing the individual to participate in activities of his own choice. If the individual has entered into an exculpatory clause freely and knowingly, and the application of the clause violates no aspect of fundamental public policy, the individual’s free choice must be respected. Here, public policy supports, rather than detracts from, the application of the exculpatory clause. “Unless courts are willing to dismiss such actions without trial, many popular and lawful recreational activities are destined for extinction.”

The court looked at the release and found it to be valid. The release lacked the word negligence; however, it spoke to “rights and claims” for “any and all damages” sustained by participating in the event. The court concentrated on the fact the plaintiff had signed more than 20 other releases, participated in more than 20 races and had crashed in at least two races. This is another situation where the facts and knowledge of the plaintiff helped seal the release in the mind of the court.

So Now What?

It was obvious that the defendant’s ability to show the court 20-30 other releases for bicycle racing signed by the plaintiff was instrumental in proving the arguments of the plaintiff did not matter. You need to hold on to releases, you never know when one many years old maybe valuable in proving your case.

That does not require that you hold onto each paper copy of a release. Electronic copies are equally valid. Invest in a scanner and take all of your old releases and scan them. You can organize them by date or race or activity. You do not need to identify each release at the time. You cans scan them in a way that they are searchable later, and if you ever need to find one, you can.

Also instrumental was the fact the plaintiff was informed at the beginning of the race that the course was open, going to have cars on the course. Add to that the defendant could prove the plaintiff had avoided cars on the course during the race and had raced on open courses in the past. I would suggest putting important information such as the course being open into the release, so you can prove you gave the rider the information. Having that information in the release, should not, however, remove the responsibility to tell the people about the open course also.

While working at a ski area, we threw in the weather report and an area map into all big accident files. We never knew if any accident would lead to a suit, however, why worry about it. Make sure the file has everything you need, every back reference or proof needed when you build the file so you don’t have to search for it. We had a lot of stored weather reports and ski area maps, but if one was needed in a lawsuit, they were easy to find.

We also included all of the skiing history we had on the injured guest. Any logs from his skiing that year, each time his pass had been scanned if the injured guest had a season pass. Prior season pass or skiing history if we had it. Proof that the injured guest knew how to ski and assumed the risk or proof that the injured guest had signed numerous releases.

That ability to find information, electronically or on paper, saved the day in this bicycle race case.

What do you think? Leave a comment.

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Copyright 2013 Recreation Law (720) Edit Law

Email: Rec-law@recreation-law.com

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Nevada Skier Safety Act

Nevada Skier Safety Act

1.1 NEVADA REVISED STATUTES ANNOTATED

TITLE 40. Public Health And Safety.

CHAPTER 455A. Safety of Participants in Outdoor Sports.

Skiers and Snowboarders

GO TO NEVADA STATUTES ARCHIVE DIRECTORY

Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 455A.023 (2012)

Table of Contents

Nevada Skier Safety Act 1

Table of Contents. 1

455A.010. Short title. 2

455A.020. Definitions. 2

455A.023. “Chair lift” defined. 3

455A.027. “Operator” defined. 3

455A.030. “Passenger” defined. 3

455A.035. “Patrol” defined. 3

455A.040. Transferred. 4

455A.050. Transferred. 4

455A.060. Transferred. 4

455A.070. “Skier” defined. 4

455A.075. “Skiing” defined. 4

455A.080. Transferred. 4

455A.083. “Snow recreation area” defined. 4

455A.085. “Snowboarder” defined. 5

455A.087. “Snowboarding” defined. 5

455A.090. “Surface lift” defined. 5

455A.100. Prohibited acts while on chair lift; skiing or snowboarding in area posted as closed prohibited. 5

455A.110. Duties of skiers and snowboarders. 6

455A.120. Prohibited acts. 7

455A.130. Signs at chair lifts: Requirements; inspection. 7

455A.140. Slopes, runs and trails: System of signs required; vehicles used by operator to be equipped with light. 8

455A.150. Illumination of signs at night. 8

455A.160. Skiers and snowboarders to notify operator or patrol of injury; limitation on liability of operator; duty of operator to minimize dangers. 9

455A.170. Prohibition against intoxication and use of controlled substances; duty to provide name and address to person injured in collision; penalty. 9

455A.180. Revocation of license or privilege to engage in skiing or snowboarding. 10

455A.190. County, city or unincorporated town may enact ordinance not in conflict with chapter. 10

455A.010. Short title.

NRS 455A.010 to 455A.190, inclusive, may be cited as the Skier and Snowboarder Safety Act.

455A.020. Definitions.

As used in NRS 455A.010 to 455A.190, inclusive, unless the context otherwise requires, the words and terms defined in NRS 455A.023 to 455A.090, inclusive, have the meanings ascribed to them in those sections.

455A.023. “Chair lift” defined.

“Chair lift” means a device, except for an elevator, that carries, pulls or pushes a person along a level or inclined path to, from or within a snow recreation area by means of a rope, cable or other flexible element that is driven by an essentially stationary source of power.

455A.027. “Operator” defined.

“Operator” means a person, or a governmental agency or political subdivision of this State, who controls or operates an area where persons engage in skiing or snowboarding.

455A.030. “Passenger” defined.

“Passenger” means a person who utilizes a chair lift for transportation.

455A.035. “Patrol” defined.

“Patrol” means agents or employees of an operator who patrol the snow recreation area.

455A.040. Transferred.

NOTES: Editor’s note. This section is now compiled as 455A.083.

455A.050. Transferred.

NOTES: Editor’s note. This section is now compiled as 455A.023.

455A.060. Transferred.

NOTES: Editor’s note. This section is now compiled as 455A.035.

455A.070. “Skier” defined.

“Skier” means a person who engages in skiing in a snow recreation area.

455A.075. “Skiing” defined.

“Skiing” means the act of using skis to move across snow-covered ground.

455A.080. Transferred.

NOTES: Editor’s note. This section is now compiled as 455A.027.

455A.083. “Snow recreation area” defined.

“Snow recreation area” means the slopes, trails, runs and other areas under the control of an operator that are intended to be used for skiing, snowboarding or for the observation of the sports.

455A.085. “Snowboarder” defined.

“Snowboarder” means a person who engages in snowboarding in a snow recreation area.

455A.087. “Snowboarding” defined.

“Snowboarding” means the act of using a snowboard to move across snow-covered ground.

455A.090. “Surface lift” defined.

“Surface lift” means a chair lift designed for skiers or snowboarders to remain in contact with the ground or snowy surface during transportation.

455A.100. Prohibited acts while on chair lift; skiing or snowboarding in area posted as closed prohibited.

A skier or snowboarder shall not:

1. Embark upon a chair lift:

(a) When the skier or snowboarder knows that he or she has insufficient knowledge or physical ability to use the chair lift safely; or

(b) That is posted as closed or not in operation;

2. Purposefully embark upon or disembark from a chair lift except at an area designated for such a purpose or at the direction and under the direct supervision of an authorized agent or employee of an operator;

3. Toss, throw or cast or intentionally drop, expel or eject an object from a chair lift;

4. Toss, throw or cast an object in the direction of a chair lift;

5. Fail or refuse to comply with:

(a) Reasonable instructions given to the skier or snowboarder by an authorized agent or employee of an operator regarding the use of a chair lift; or

(b) A sign posted pursuant to NRS 455A.130 or 455A.140;

6. Place any object in the uphill path of a surface lift;

7. Conduct himself or herself in a manner that interferes with the safe operation of a chair lift or with the safety of a passenger, skier or snowboarder; or

8. Engage in skiing or snowboarding in an area within the snow recreation area which is posted, as provided in NRS 207.200, as closed.

455A.110. Duties of skiers and snowboarders.

A skier or snowboarder shall, to the extent that the matter is within his or her control:

1. Locate and ascertain the meaning of signs in the vicinity of the skier or snowboarder posted pursuant to NRS 455A.130 and 455A.140;

2. Heed warnings and other information posted by an operator;

3. Remain a safe distance from vehicles, signs and equipment for grooming snow or for transportation;

4. Avoid skiers or snowboarders in motion when entering a slope, run or trail, and when commencing to engage in skiing or snowboarding from a stationary position;

5. Maintain a proper lookout and control of his or her speed to avoid downhill objects, skiers and snowboarders to the best of his or her ability; and

6. Conduct himself or herself in such a manner as to avoid injury to persons and property in a snow recreation area.

455A.120. Prohibited acts.

A skier or snowboarder shall not:

1. Use a ski or snowboard unless it is attached to the skier or snowboarder by a strap or equipped with a device capable of stopping the movement of the ski or snowboard when not attached to the skier or snowboarder;

2. Cross the uphill path of a surface lift except at locations designated by an operator; or

3. Willfully stop where the skier or snowboarder obstructs a slope, run or trail, or where he or she is not safely visible to uphill skiers or snowboarders.

455A.130. Signs at chair lifts: Requirements; inspection.

1. An operator shall prominently post and maintain signs in simple and concise language:

(a) By each chair lift, with information for the protection and instruction of passengers; and

(b) At or near the points where passengers are loaded on a chair lift, directing persons who are not familiar with the operation of the chair lift to ask an authorized agent or employee of the operator for assistance and instruction.

2. An operator shall prominently post and maintain signs with the following inscriptions at all chair lifts in the locations indicated:

(a) “Remove pole straps from wrists” at an area for loading skiers;

(b) “Safety gate” where applicable;

(c) “Stay on tracks” where applicable;

(d) “Keep ski tips or snowboard up” ahead of any point where a ski or snowboard can regain contact with the ground or snowy surface after a passenger departs from an area for loading skiers or snowboarders;

(e) “Prepare to unload” and “check for loose clothing and equipment” not less than 50 feet from an area for unloading skiers or snowboarders; and

(f) “Unload here” at an area for unloading skiers or snowboarders.

3. An operator shall inspect a snow recreation area for the presence and visibility of the signs required to be posted by this section each day before opening the snow recreation area for business.

455A.140. Slopes, runs and trails: System of signs required; vehicles used by operator to be equipped with light.

1. An operator shall post and maintain a system of signs:

(a) At the entrances to an established slope, run or trail to indicate:

(1) Whether any portion of the slope, run or trail is closed; and

(2) The relative degree of difficulty of the slope, run or trail;

(b) To indicate the boundary of the snow recreation area, except in heavily wooded areas or other terrain that cannot be skied or snowboarded readily; and

(c) To warn of each area within the boundary of the snow recreation area where there is a danger of avalanche by posting signs stating “Warning: Avalanche Danger Area.”

2. An operator shall equip vehicles it uses on or in the vicinity of a slope, run or trail with a light visible to skiers or snowboarders when the vehicle is in motion.

455A.150. Illumination of signs at night.

A sign required to be posted pursuant to NRS 455A.130; and 455A.140 must be adequately illuminated at night, if the snow recreation area is open to the public at night, and be readable and recognizable under ordinary conditions of visibility.

455A.160. Skiers and snowboarders to notify operator or patrol of injury; limitation on liability of operator; duty of operator to minimize dangers.

1. A skier or snowboarder who sustains a personal injury shall notify the operator or a member of the patrol of the injury as soon as reasonably possible after discovery of the injury.

2. An operator is not liable for the death or injury of a person or damages to property caused or sustained by a skier or snowboarder who knowingly enters an area which is not designated for skiing or snowboarding or which is outside the boundary of a snow recreation area.

3. An operator shall take reasonable steps to minimize dangers and conditions within the operator’s control.

455A.170. Prohibition against intoxication and use of controlled substances; duty to provide name and address to person injured in collision; penalty.

1. A skier or snowboarder shall not engage in skiing or snowboarding, or embark on a chair lift that is proceeding predominantly uphill, while intoxicated or under the influence of a controlled substance as defined in chapter 453 of NRS unless in accordance with a lawfully issued prescription.

2. A skier or snowboarder who is involved in a collision in which another person is injured shall provide his or her name and current address to the injured person, the operator or a member of the patrol:

(a) Before the skier or snowboarder leaves the vicinity of the collision; or

(b) As soon as reasonably possible after leaving the vicinity of the collision to secure aid for the injured person.

3. A person who violates a provision of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor.

455A.180. Revocation of license or privilege to engage in skiing or snowboarding.

An operator may revoke the license or privilege of a person to engage in skiing or snowboarding in a snow recreation area if the person violates any provision of NRS 455A.100, 455A.110, 455A.120 or 455A.170.

455A.190. County, city or unincorporated town may enact ordinance not in conflict with chapter.

The provisions of NRS 455A.010 to 455A.190, inclusive, do not prohibit a county, city or unincorporated town from enacting an ordinance, not in conflict with the provisions of NRS 455A.010 to 455A.190, inclusive, regulating skiers, snowboarders or operators.